Cell Biology and Functions
Updated in October 2019
Leaf morphogenesis is strictly controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors, such as transcriptional factors, but also by environmental cues, such as light, water and pathogens. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of how leaf morphogenesis is regulated by genetic programs and environmental cues is far from clear. Numerous series of events demonstrate that plant hormones, mostly small and simple molecules, play crucial roles in plant growth and development, and in responses of plants to environmental cues such as light. With more and more genetics and molecular evidence obtained from the model plant Arabidopsis, several fundamental aspects of leaf morphogenesis including the initiation of leaf primordia, the determination of leaf axes, the regulation of cell division and expansion in leaves have been gradually unveiled. Among these phytohormones, auxin is found to be essential in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis.Author for correspondence. Fax: +86 (0)10 6275 3339; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Arabidopsis COP1 (Constitutive Photomorphogenic 1) defines a key repressor of photomorphogenesis in darkness by acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus, and is responsible for the targeted degradation of a number of photomorphogenesis-promoting factors, including phyA, HY5, LAF1, and HFR1. Light activation of multiple classes of photoreceptors (including both phytochromes and cryptochromes) inactivates COP1 and reduces its nuclear abundance, allowing the accumulation of these positively acting light signaling intermediates to promote photomorphogenic development. Recent studies suggest that Arabidopsis COP1 teams up with a family of SPA proteins (SPA1-SPA4) to form the physiologically active COP1-SPA E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. These COP1-SPA complexes play overlapping and distinct functions in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis under different light conditions and adult plant growth. Further, the COP1-SPA complexes act in concert at a biochemical level with the CDD (COP10, DET1, and DDB1) complex and COP9 signalosome (CSN) to orchestrate the repression of photomorphogenesis.Author for correspondence. Tel: +1 607 254 7476; Fax: +1 607 254 1242; E-mail: email@example.com
Flowering symbolizes the transition of a plant from vegetative phase to reproductive phase and is controlled by fairly complex and highly coordinated regulatory pathways. Over the last decade, genetic studies in Arabidopsis have aided the discovery of many signaling components involved in these pathways. In this review, we discuss how the timing of flowering is regulated by photoperiod and the involvement of light perception and the circadian clock in this process. The specific regulatory mechanisms on CONSTANS expression and CONSTANS stability by the circadian clock and photoreceptors are described in detail. In addition, the roles of CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, and several other light signaling and circadian-dependent components in photoperiodic flowering are also highlighted.Author for correspondence. Tel: +1 612 625 3702; Fax: +1 612 625 1738; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Light affects many aspects of plant development, including seed germination, stem elongation, and floral initiation. How photoreceptors control photomorphogenic processes is not yet fully understood. Because phytohormones are chemical regulators of plant development, it may not be surprising that light affects, directly or indirectly, cellular levels and signaling processes of various phytohormones, such as auxin, gibberellins (GA), cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), and brassinosteroids (BR). Among those phytohormones, light regulation of GA metabolism has probably attracted more attention among photobiologists and it is arguably the most extensively studied plant hormone at present with respect to its role in photomorphogenesis. It has become increasingly clear that phytochromes and cryptochromes are the major photoreceptors mediating light regulation of GA homeostasis. This short article attempts to examine some recent developments in our understanding of how light and photoreceptors regulate GA biosynthesis and catabolism during seedling development. It is not our intention to carry out a comprehensive review of the field, and readers are referred to recent review articles for a more complete view of this area of study (Kamiya and Garcia-Martinez 1999; Hedden and Phillips 2000; Garcia-Martinez and Gil 2001; Olszewski et al. 2002; Halliday and Fankhauser 2003; Sun and Gubler 2004).Author for correspondence. Tel: +1 310 206 9576; Fax: +1 310 206 3987; E-mail: email@example.com
As the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of cellulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development, indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6275 1193; Fax: +86 (0)10 6275 4427; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins repress their target gene expression by assemble complexes in Drosophila and mammals. Three groups of Pc-G genes, controlling seed development, flower development and vernalization response, have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.). MEDEA (MEA), FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2), and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) are Pc-G genes in Arabidopsis. Their functions in seed development have been extensively explored. The advanced findings of molecular mechanism on how MEA, FIS2 and FIE control seed development in Arabidopsis are reviewed in this paper.
Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 8072 7510; Fax: +86 (0)10 8072 7511; E-mail: email@example.com
Plants possess innate immune systems to prevent most potential infections. The ancient and conserved innate immune responses are triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and play important roles in broad-spectrum defenses. However, successful bacterial pathogens evolved type III virulence effectors to suppress MAMP-mediated immunity. To survive, plants further developed highly specific resistance (R) genes to trigger gene-for-gene-mediated immunity and turn the virulent pathogens into avirulent ones. We summarize here the very recent advances in this dynamic coevolution of plant-bacterium interaction.Author for correspondence. Tel: +1 617 643 3314; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) grains synthesize and accumulate starch as their main energy source. Starch accumulation rate and synthesis activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthases, granule-bound starch synthase and starch-branching enzyme showed similar pattern of unimodal curves during endosperm development. There was no significant difference in activity of the starch granule-bound protein isolated from total and separated starch granules at different developmental stages after anthesis in triticale. Evans Blue staining and analysis of DNA fragmentation indicated that cells of triticale endosperm undergo programmed cell death during its development. Dead cells within the endosperm were detected at 6 d post anthesis (DPA), and evidence of DNA fragmentation was first observed at 21 DPA. The period between initial detection of PCD to its rapid increase overlapped with the key stages of rapid starch accumulation during endosperm development. Cell death occurred stochastically throughout the whole endosperm, meanwhile, the activities of starch biosynthetic enzymes and the starch accumulation rate decreased in the late stages of grain filling. These results suggested that the timing and progression of PCD in triticale endosperm may interfere with starch synthesis and accumulation.
Li CY, Li WH, Li C, Gaudet DA, Laroche A, Cao LP, Lu ZX (2010) Starch synthesis and programmed cell death during endosperm development in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(7), 602–615.
The development of the fertilization pore during oogenesis of the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides was followed using transmission electron microscopy. The newly formed egg is appressed closely to the adjacent cells. There are well-developed plasmodesmata between the egg and the ventral canal cell, but none between the egg and the jacket cells of the archegonium. During maturation, a separation cavity is formed around the egg. However, a pore region persistently connects the egg and the ventral canal cell. The extra egg membrane is formed by deposition of sheets of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but no ER is deposited on the inner surface of the pore region. Thus, a fertilization pore, covered by a layer of plasmalemma, is formed. The ventral canal cell undoubtedly participates the formation of the fertilization pore, probably by absorbing the sheets of ER beneath the pore region. The functional significance of the ventral canal cell in formation of the fertilization pore is discussed. The features of the mature egg include that abundant concentric membranes and osmiophilic vesicles occur in the cytoplasm of the mature egg. The initial, round nucleus of the egg eventually becomes cup-shaped. This investigation gives some new insights about the cells participating oogenesis in ferns.
Cao JG, Wang QX, Bao WM (2010) Formation of the fertilization pore during oogenesis of the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(6), 518–527.
Previous studies have demonstrated that petal shape and size in legume flowers are determined by two separate mechanisms, dorsoventral (DV) and organ internal (IN) asymmetric mechanisms, respectively. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling petal development in legumes. To address this question, we investigated petal development along the floral DV axis in Lotus japonicus with respect to cell and developmental biology by comparing wild-type legumes to mutants. Based on morphological markers, the entire course of petal development, from initiation to maturity, was grouped to define 3 phases or 13 stages. In terms of epidermal micromorphology from adaxial surface, mature petals were divided into several distinct domains, and characteristic epidermal cells of each petal differentiated at stage 9, while epidermal cells of all domains were observed until stage 12. TCP and MIXTA-like genes were found to be differentially expressed in various domains of petals at stages 9 and 12. Our results suggest that DV and IN mechanisms interplay at different stages of petal development, and their interaction at the cellular and molecular level guides the elaboration of domains within petals to achieve their ideal shape, and further suggest that TCP genes determine petal identity along the DV axis by regulating MIXTA-like gene expression.
Keywords: CYC-like TCP genes; epidermal cell; <i>Lotus japonicus</i>; MIXTA-like genes; petal.
Weng L, Tian Z, Feng X, Li X, Xu S, Hu X, Luo D, Yang J (2011) Petal development in <i>Lotus japonicus</i>. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(10), 770–782.
In this report, we demonstrate that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, promoted adventitious root formation mediated by auxin and nitric oxide (NO). Application of the H2S donor to seedling cuttings of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) promoted the number and length of adventitious roots in a dose-dependent manner. It was also verified that H2S or HS− rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHS could be attributed to the stimulation of adventitious root formation. A rapid increase in endogenous H2S, indole acetic acid (IAA) and NO were sequentially observed in shoot tips of sweet potato seedlings treated with HaHS. Further investigation showed that H2S-mediated root formation was alleviated by N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an IAA transport inhibitor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), an NO scavenger. Similar phenomena in H2S donor-dependent root
organogenesis were observed in both excised willow (Salix matsudana var. tortuosa Vilm) shoots and soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings. These results indicated that the process of H2S-induced adventitious root formation was likely mediated by IAA and NO, and that H2S acts upstream of IAA and NO signal transduction pathways.
Zhang H, Tang J, Liu XP, Wang Y, Yu W, Peng WY, Fang F, Ma DF, Wei ZJ, Hu LY (2009). Hydrogen sulfide promotes root organogenesis in Ipomoea batatas, Salix matsudana and Glycine max. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1086–1094.
We reported previously that the protein SB401 from Solanum berthaulti binds to and bundles both microtubules and F-actin. In the current study, we investigated the regulation of SB401 activity by its phosphorylation. Our experimental results showed that the phosphorylation of SB401 by casein kinase II (CKII) down-regulates the activities of SB401, namely the bundling of microtubules and enhancement of the polymerization of tubulin. However, phosphorylation of SB401 had no observable effect on its bundling of F-actin. Further investigation using extract of potato pollen indicated that a CKII-like kinase may exist in potato pollen. Antibodies against CKII alpha recognized specifically a major band from the pollen extract and the pollen extract was able to phosphorylate the SB401 protein in vitro. The CKII-like kinase showed a similar ability to down-regulate the bundling of microtubules. Our experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of SB401 activity. We propose that this phosphorylation may regulate the effects of SB401 on microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton.
Liu BQ, Jin L, Zhu L, Li J, Huang S, Yuan M (2009). Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii regulates its effect on microtubules. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 235–242.
Histone lysine methylation is known to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in all eukaryotes including plants. Here we show that the rice SDG714 is primarily responsible for dimethylation but not trimethylation on histone H3K9 in vivo. Overexpression of YFP-SDG714 in Arabidopsis significantly inhibits plant growth and this inhibition is associated with an enhanced level of H3K9 dimethylation. Our microarray results show that many genes essential for the plant growth and development were downregulated in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing YFP-SDG714. By chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we show that YFP-SDG714 is targeted to specific chromatin regions and dimethylate the H3K9, which is linked with heterochromatinization and the downregulation of genes. Most interestingly, when YFP-SDG714 production is stopped, the inhibited plants can partially restore their growth, suggesting that the perturbation of gene expression caused by YFP-SDG714 is revertible. Taken together, our results point to an important role of SDG714 in H3K9 dimethylation, suppression of gene expression and plant growth, and provide a potential method to regulate gene expression and plant development by an on-off switch of SDG714 expression.
Ding B, Zhu Y, Bu ZY, Shen WH, Yu Y, Dong AW (2010) SDG714 regulates specific gene expression and consequently affects plant growth via H3K9 dimethylation. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(4), 420–430.
Previous study has shown that during zygomorphic development in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), the organ internal (IN) asymmetry of lateral and ventral petals was regulated by a genetic locus, SYMMETRIC PETAL 1 (SYP1), while the dorsoventral (DV) asymmetry was determined by two CYC-like TCP genes or the PsCYC genes, KEELED WINGS (K) and LOBED STANDARD 1 (LST1). In this study, two novel loci, ELEPHANT EAR-LIKE LEAF 1 (ELE1) and ELE2 were characterized. These mutants exhibit a similar defect of IN asymmetry as syp1 in lateral and ventral petals, but also display pleiotropic effects of enlarged organ size. Genetic analysis showed that ELE1 and ELE2 were involved in same genetic pathway and the enlarged size of petals but not compound leaves in ele2 was suppressed by introducing k and lst1, indicating that the enlargement of dorsal petal in ele2 requires the activities of K and LST1. An experimental framework of comparative genomic mapping approach was set up to map and clone LjELE1 locus in Lotus japonicus. Cloning the ELE1 gene will shed light on the underlying molecular mechanism during zygomorphic development and further provide the molecular basis for genetic improvement on legume crops.
Li X, Zhuang LL, Ambrose M, Rameau C, Hu XH, Yang J, Luo D (2010) Genetic analysis of ele mutants and comparative mapping of ele1 locus in the control of organ internal asymmetry in garden pea. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 52(6), 528–535.
Free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca2+] cyt elevation is associated with Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca2+ channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltagedependent Ca2+ permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba2+ and Ca2+, and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd3+. The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca2+ or Ba2+ gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca2+ (Ba2+) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NPo of the single Ca2+ channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NPo of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.
Zhang W, Fan LM (2009). Actin dynamics regulates voltage-dependent calcium-permeable channels of the Vicia faba guard cell plasma membrane. J. Integr. Plant Biol.51(10), 912-921.
In temperate regions, latewood is produced when cambial activity declines with the approach of autumnal dormancy. The understanding of the temporal (cambium activity vs dormancy) and spatial (phloem, cambial region, maturing xylem) regulation of key genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway during latewood formation represents a crucial step towards providing new insights into the molecular basis of xylogenesis. In this study, the temporal pattern of transcript accumulation of 12 phenylpropanoid genes (PAL1, C4H3/5, C4H4, 4CL3, 4CL4, HCT1, C3H3, CCoAOMT1, COMT2, COMT5, CCR2) was analyzed in maturing xylem and phloem of Picea abies during latewood formation. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed a well-defined RNA accumulation pattern of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway during latewood formation. Differences in the RNA accumulation patterns were detected between the different tissue types analyzed. The results obtained here demonstrated that the molecular processes involved in monolignol biosynthesis are not restricted to the cambial activity timeframe but continued after the end of cambium cell proliferation. Furthermore, since it has been shown that lignification of maturing xylem takes place in late autumn, we argue on the basis of our data that phloem could play a key role in the monolignol biosynthesis process.
Keywords: cambial region; gene expression; latewood formation; xylogenesis.
Emiliani G, Traversi ML, Anichini M, Giachi G, Giovannelli A (2011) Transcript accumulation dynamics of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in the maturing xylem and Phloem of <i>Picea abies</i> during latewood formation. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 53(10), 783–799.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19–24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.
Chen R, Hu Z, Zhang H (2009). Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1071–1079.
We report here on a comparative developmental profile of plant hormone cytokinins in relation to cell size, cell number and endoreduplication in developing maize caryopsis of a cell wall invertase-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and its wild type, Mn1, genotype. Both genotypes showed extremely high levels of total cytokinins during the very early stages of development, followed by a marked and genotype specific reduction. While the decrease of cytokinins in Mn1 was associated with their deactivation by 9-glucosylation, the absolute and the relative part of active cytokinin forms was higher in the mutant. During the exponential growth phase of endosperm between 6 d after pollination and 9 d after pollination, the mean cell doubling time, the absolute growth rate and the level of endoreduplication were similar in the two genotypes. However, the entire duration of growth was longer in Mn1 compared with mn1, resulting in a significantly higher cell number in the Mn1 endosperm. These data correlate with the previously reported peak levels of the Mn1-encoded cell wall invertase-2 (INCW2) at 12 d after pollination in the Mn1 endosperm. A model showing possible crosstalk among cytokinins, cell cycle and cell wall invertase as causal to increased cell number and sink strength of the Mn1 developing endosperm is discussed.
Rijavec T, Kova?M, Kladnik A, Chourey PS, Dermastia M (2009). A comparative study on the role of cytokinins in caryopsis development in the maize miniature1 seed mutant and its wild type. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 840–849.
The effects of ethylene on tension wood formation were studied in 3-year-old Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim. seedlings in two separate experiments. In experiment 1, ethylene evolution of buds and stems was measured using gas chromatography after 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 d of treatment; in experiment 2, both aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and AgNO3 were applied to the horizontally-placed stems, and the cell numbers on sites of applications were measured after 40 d. Ethylene evolution from buds was found to be much greater in tilted seedlings than in upright ones. The cell numbers of wood fibers in shoots and 1-year-old stems were reduced in treatments with 12.5 × 10−7 μmol/L AVG, 12.5 × 10−8 μmol/L AVG, and 11.8 × 10−8 μmol/L AgNO3; whereas the horizontal and vertical diameters were reduced by treatment of 12.5 × 10−7 μmol/L AVG. Ethylene evolutions of shoots and 1-year-old stems were inhibited greatly in comparison with the control by applying 12.5 × 10−7 μmol/L AVG. The formation of a gelatinous layer of wood fibers was affected by neither AVG nor AgNO3 application. These results suggest that ethylene regulates the quantity of wood production, but does not affect G-layer formation in F. mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim. seedlings.
Jiang S, Xu K, Zhao N, Zheng SX, Ren YP, Gu S (2009). Ethylene evolution changes in tilted Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica maxim. seedlings in relation to tension wood formation. J. Integr. Plant Biol. doi: 51(7), 707-713.
Microtubules are highly dynamic cytoskeletal polymers of α/β-tubulin heterodimers that undergo multiple post-translational modifications essential for various cellular functions in eukaryotes. The lysine 40 (K40) is largely conserved in α-tubulins in many eukaryote species, and the post-translational modification by acetylation at K40 is critical for neuronal development in vertebrates. However, the biological function of K40 of α-tubulins in plants remains unexplored. In this study, we show in Arabidopsis thaliana that constitutive expression of mutated forms of α-tubulin6 (TUA6) at K40 (TUA6K40A or TUA6K40Q), in which K40 is replaced by alanine or glutamine, result in severely reduced plant size. Phenotypic characterization of the 35S:TUA6K40A transgenic plants revealed that both cell proliferation and cell expansion were affected. Cytological and biochemical analyses showed that the accumulation of α- and β-tubulin proteins was significantly reduced in the transgenic plants, and the cortical microtubule arrays were severely disrupted, indicating that K40 of the plant α-tubulin is critical in maintaining microtubule stability. We also constructed 35S:TUA6K40R transgenic plants in which K40 of the engineered TUA6 protein is replaced by an arginine, and found that the 35S:TUA6K40R plants were phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild-type. Since lysine and arginine are similar in biochemical nature but arginine cannot be acetylated, these results suggest a structural importance for K40 of α-tubulins in cell division and expansion.
Xiong X, Xu D, Yang Z, Huang H, Cui X (2013) A single amino-acid substitution at lysine 40 of an Arabidopsis thaliana α-tubulin causes extensive cell proliferation and expansion defects. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(3), 209–220.
The sub-cellular events that occur during the ethylene-modulated cell elongation were characterized by examining the ultra-structure of etiolated Arabidopsis seedling hypocotyl cells. Preventing the basal level ethylene response facilitated cell elongation, and the cells exhibited wall loosening and separation phenotype. Nearby the wall separation sites were frequently associated with an increase in the cortical rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) membranes, the presence of paramural bodies, and the circular Golgi formation. The cortical rER proliferation and circular Golgi phenotype were reverted by the protein biosynthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The cortical rER membranes were longer when the ethylene response was prevented and shortened with elevated ethylene responses. Proteomic changes between wild type and the ethylene-insensitive mutant ethylene insensitive2 (ein2) seedling hypocotyls indicated that distinct subsets of proteins involving endomembrane trafficking, remodeling, and wall modifications were differentially expressed. FM4-64 staining supported the proteomic changes, which indicated reduced endocytosis activity with alleviation of the ethylene response. The basal level ethylene response has an important role in endomembrane trafficking, biological materials transport and maintenance of the endomembrane organization. It is possible that endomembrane alterations may partly associate with the wall modifications, though the biological significance of the alterations should be addressed in future studies.
Xu C, Gao X, Sun X, Wen CK (2012) The basal level ethylene response is important to the wall and endomembrane structure in the hypocotyl cells of etiolated arabidopsis seedlings. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 54(7), 434–455.
Phosphate (Pi) deficiency causes dramatic root system architecture (RSA changes in higher plants. Here we report that overexpression of HRS1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to low Pi-elicited inhibition of primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Bioinformatic investigations uncovered that HRS1 and its six homologs encode putative G2-like transcription factors in Arabidopsis. Analysis of promoter::GUS reporter lines revealed that HRS1 transcripts were present mainly in the root hair region and root hair cells under Pi-sufficient conditions. Pi deprivation increased HRS1 expression level and expanded its expression domain. Although HRS1 knockout mutant did not differ from wild type (WT) control irrespective of Pi status, its overexpression lines were significantly more susceptible to low Pi-elicited primary root shortening. In both WT and HRS1 overexpression seedlings, low Pi-induced primary root shortening was accompanied by enhanced root hair cell differentiation, but this enhancement occurred to a greater extent in the latter genotype. Collectively, our data suggest that HRS1 may be involved in the modulation of primary root and root hair growth in Pi-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings, and provide useful clues for further research into the function of HRS1 and its homologs and the mechanisms behind RSA changes under Pi-deficient conditions.
Liu H, Yang H, Wu C, Feng J, Liu X, Qin H, Wang D (2009) Overexpressing HRS1 confers hypersensitivity to low phosphate-elicited inhibition of primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(4), 382–392.