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J Integr Plant Biol, 2019, 61 (12): 1255-1273, Research Article
Nitric oxide, γ-aminobutyric acid, and mannose pretreatment influence metabolic profiles in white clover under water stress
Zhou Li, Bin Yong, Bizhen Cheng, Xing Wu, Yan Zhang, Xinquan Zhang* and Yan Peng*
Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China

These authors contributed equally to this work.
*Correspondences:
Email: Yan Peng (pengyanlee@163.com, Dr. Peng is fully responsible for the distributions of all materials associated with this article); Xinquan Zhang (zhangxq@sicau.edu.cn)
doi: 10.1111/jipb.12770
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO), γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA), and mannose (MAS) could be important regulators of plant growth and adaptation to water stress. The application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor), GABA, and MAS improved plant growth under water‐sufficient conditions and effectively mitigated water stress damage to white clover. The metabonomic analysis showed that both SNP and GABA application resulted in a significant increase in myo‐inositol content; the accumulation of mannose was commonly regulated by SNP and MAS; GABA and MAS induced the accumulation of aspartic acid, quinic acid, trehalose, and glycerol under water deficit. In addition, citric acid was uniquely up‐regulated by SNP associated with tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under water stress. GABA specially induced the accumulation of GABA, glycine, methionine, and aconitic acid related to GABA shunt, amino acids metabolism, and TCA cycle in response to water stress. MAS uniquely enhanced the accumulation of asparagine, galactose, and D‐pinitol in association with amino acids and sugars metabolism under water stress. SNP‐, GABA‐, and MAS‐induced changes of metabolic profiles and associated metabolic pathways could contribute to enhanced stress tolerance via involvement in the TCA cycle for energy supply, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant defense, and signal transduction for stress defense in white clover.
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Received: 23 October 2018      Accepted:    Online on:
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