J Integr Plant Biol ›› 2020, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (9): 1385-1398.

• Research Articles •

### Florigen trafficking integrates photoperiod and temperature signals in Arabidopsis

Lu Liu1*, Yu Zhang2,3 and Hao Yu2,3*

1. 1School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
3Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117604, Singapore

*Correspondence: Lu Liu (lu.liu@sjtu.edu.cn, Dr. Liu is fully responsible for the distribution of all materials associated with this article); Hao Yu (dbsyuhao@nus.edu.sg)
• Received:2020-05-25 Accepted:2020-07-29 Online:2020-09-01 Published:2020-07-30

Abstract:

The transition to flowering is the most dramatic phase change in flowering plants and is crucial for reproductive success. A complex regulatory network in plants has evolved to perceive and integrate the endogenous and environmental signals. These signals perceived, including day length and temperature, converge to regulate FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a mobile stimulus required for floral induction in Arabidopsis. Despite the discovery of modulation of FT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by ambient temperature, whether the trafficking of FT protein is controlled in response to changes in growth temperature is so far unknown. Here, we show that FT transport from companion cells to sieve elements is controlled in a temperature‐dependent manner. This process is mediated by multiple C2 domain and transmembrane region proteins (MCTPs) and a soluble N‐ethylmaleimide‐sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE). Our findings suggest that ambient temperatures regulate both FT mRNA expression and FT protein trafficking to prevent precocious flowering at low temperatures and ensure plant reproductive success under favorable environmental conditions.

Plants integrate endogenous and external cues to determine when they should flower, and these signals converge on the regulation of the mobile florigenic signal. Here, we show that florigen transport from companion cells to sieve element is mediated by both photoperiod and temperature via multiple trafficking regulators.
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