J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1993, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (10): -.

• Research Articles •    

The Morphological and Anatomical Characters of Bamboo Fruits with Relation to Systematics and Evolution

Yu Fu-gen,Hu Chen-hua, Chen Ling and Chen Xiao-ya   

Abstract: The morphological and anatomical characteristics of bamboo fruits of 39 species in 21 genera have been surveyed. The results showed that characters as the shape, the middle cross section, the morphology of pericarp, rostrum and embryo, the presence or absence of ventral groove and embryotega, and the thickness of aleurone layer of fruits were the important features in identifying different genera, and also in studying systematics and evolution of the bamboos. All the bamboo fruits examined herewith could be considered as caryopses, and they could be subdivided into four types viz. typical, bacoid, nucoid and seminucoid type. Type A,typical,as most grass fruits, with thin pericarp throughout or thickened only at apex, ventral groove (hilum) and embryotega, was found in the majority of bamboos, such as Fargesia and Arundinaria. Type B, bacoid, with thick and fleshy pericarp, was found in nine genera: Melocanna, Dicochloa, Ochlandra,Olrneca, Melocalarnus, Chirnonobarnbusa ,Qiongzhuea, Ferrocalamus and Alvirnia. Type C, nucoid, with hard pericarp, was found so far only in Dendrocalamus and Cephalostachyurn. Type D,semi-nucoid, the intermediate type between type A and C, with pericarp, as in type A, in the dorsum and pericarp, as in type C in the ventrum was found in Sinocalarnus, PhyUostachys and Thyrsostachys. Bacoid may be the primitive type, from which nueoid may have evolved. Semi-nucoid may have evolved from nucoid. Typical type may be advanced and have evolved from bocoid or semi-nucoid. The primitive fruits of bamboos may have characteristics such as follows: globose or spheroidal in shape, round middle cross section; thick and fleshy pericarp throughout, less differentiated, presence of vascular bundle; absence of ventral groove (hilum) and embryotega; aleurone layer composed of a number of cell layers; large and curved'or folded embryo. Bamboos with such a fruit have iterauctant inflorescences except Ferrocalamus.

Key words: Bamboo, Fruit, Systematics, Evolution

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