J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1984, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): -.

• Research Articles •    

Investigation on the Procaryotic Microfossils from the Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Jixian, North China

Xu Zhao-liang   

Abstract: Stromatolitic cherts of the late Precambrian Gaoyuzhuang Formation at the Stratotype section of the “Sinian Suberathem” near Jixian, North China, contain a varied assemblage of well-preserved filamentous and coccoid blue-green algae. This assemblage constitutes perhaps one of the well-preserved, diverse Precambrian microbiota now known. The fossiliferous cherts occur in the lower part of this formation which is about 1500 Ma-old interpolated depending on Pb-Pb ages yielded from the middle part of it and K-Ar ages yielded from the underlying Dahongyu Formation. Fifteen new taxa of microfossils, comprising 6 new genera, are here described from the Gaoyuzhuang stromatolitic cherts. All species of blue-green algae have been recognized in the assemblage and refer to the modern Chroococcaceae, OsciUatoriaceae, Nostocaceae and Rivullariaceae. Most of these fossil algae are comparable in morphological details particularly to living Cyanophyta. It is evident that the cyanophytes had become well-diversified already by the late Precambrian. This evidence indicates that at least the morphological details are similar to those exhibited in living cyanophytes and these blue-green algae have not changed since Gaoyuzhuang time. This apparent evolutionary conservatism is probably attributable to a wide ecological tolerance and flexibility and also reflects its inherent genetic stability. The plant phylogenesis especially of Cyanophyta is discussed in this paper according to microfossil records detected in the thin sections of stromatolitic cherts from the Gaoyuzhuang Formation. Based on morphological characteristics and their generations Rivullariaceae may originate from Oscillatoriaceae. In addition algal biocoenoses in this stromatolitic chert grew in the form of laminar mats in the apparently subtital to intertital environment. The paleoclimate was subtropical or tropical. The following new taxa are here described:Microcystopsis yaoi, Eoaphanothece zhuiana, Oscillatoriopsis acuminata, O. hemisphaerica, O. disciformis, O. glabra, O. tuberculata, Eophormidium liangii, E. capitatum, E. semicirculare, Schizothropsis caudata, Paleoisocystis monosporata, P. disporata, Anabaenidium sophoroides and Paleocalothrix xui.

Key words: Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Procaryotic microfossils, Evolution of the Cyanophycean

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