J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1980, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): -.

• Research Articles •    

Studies of Chromosome Banding with Giemsa in Vicia faba and Allium cepa

Zhang Zi-li and Chen Gui-lan   

Abstract: Giemsa dye is a complex mixture containing methylene blue, its oxidation products-azure Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and their eosinate. The results of our experiments have demonstrated that staining with methylene blue alone can give a faint trace of banding as well as azure Ⅰ, Ⅱ. No bands are obtained with eosin. Nevertheless, good chromosome bandings can be often produced by staining with methylene blue-eosinate or azure Ⅱ-eosinate. These data indicate that eosinate has an important effect for the formation of C-banding on plant chromosomes. In our experiments, the treatments of chromosomes with trypsin or papain have also resulted in good C-banding pattern when slides are stained with Giemsa. We found that the slides untreated with proteinase showed homogeneous intense chromosome staining and, on the contrary, the slides treated with proteinase led to palestaining chromosomes and presenting bandings. It has shown that proteinase, especially trypsin, not only can remove a large amount of chromosomal protein but also can remove DNA and results in C-bandings. Treated properly with trypsin and followed by the Feulgen staining, chromosomes can also produce the C-bandings, but chromosomes treated overtime with trypsin are stained more palely in Feulgen reaction or lead to colourlessness. The above results have further proved that trypsin technique removes large amounts of chromosome DNA and removes less from the C-band regions than from the non-band regions. In this paper we mainly discussed the effects of protein on mechanism of plant chromosome banding. We consider that the production of plant C-banding is probably due to the differential accessibility of nucleoprotein between euehromatin and heteroehromatin regions. It brings about selective removal of nucleoprotein from the chromosome arms. We have compared the effect of trypsin with papain and pepsin on producing bands. Good bands are produced by Giemsa staining chromosomes with trypsin, but no bands are obtained by staining chromosomes treated with pepsin. So the results have expressed that histones are possibly playing more important role in C-bandings.

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