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J Integr Plant Biol, 1975, 17 (1): -, Research Article
Study on Essential Oils of the Family Lauraceae from Yunnan 111. The Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oils of Three Species of the Lauraceous Plants
Essential Oils Research Group, Laboratory of Phytochemistry, Institute of Botany, Yunnan
doi:
Abstract
The present work is a report on the studies of the chemical constituents of the essential oils of three species of the lauraceous plants in the province of Yunnan, namely Cinnamomum aff. tamala Nees et Eberm., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., L. euosma W. W. Smith. Their oils were analysed by applying a combination of the following techniques: (a), fractional distillation; (b), silica gel column chromatography; (c), thin-layer chromatography; (d), preparation of derivative; (e), gas chromatography. Cinnamomum afftamala Nees et Eberm. is widely distributed in the southern part of Yunnan. The properties of the essential oil from a collection at Yu-Hsi were the following: yield of oil (from fresh leaves) 1.1%; d1818 0.8736; nD14 1.4590; αD14-12.9˚;1-citronellal (αD-13.9˚) content 58.1%, and l-citronellol (αD-9.5—10˚) content 10.8%. They are higyly purified laevo citronellal and laevo citronellol first isolated from the nature. The chemical constituents besides l-citronellal and l-citronellol were α-pinene 1.2%; camphene 0.6%; dipentene 1.2%; cineope 1.2%; p-cymene 2.2%; methylheptenone 1.9%; d-linalool 2.5%; camphor 3.2%; d-isopulegol 4.4%; d-α-fenchylalcohol 2.9%; citral 2.5%; geraniol 0.9%; safrole 1.2%; α-humulene 3%; and a minor amount of eugenol. The properties of the essential oil from the fresh fruits of Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. collected at Si-Chaur, Yunnan were as the following: yield of oil 1.6%–3%; d1818 0.8978; nD14 1.4871; αD+2—4.3˚ The pressence of citral (62.5%), methylheptenone (3.1%), d-limonene (11.6%) and d-linalool (2.5%) reported by previous workers was confirmed. In addition, the oil was found to contain ten previously unreported constituents. They were as follows: α-pinene (1.6%), camphene (3.5%), p-cymene (0.3%), citronellal (7.6%), camphor (0.8%), geranyl acetate (0.9%), α-terpineol (1.5%), geraniol (1.1%), safrole (0.9%) and α-humulene (1.2%). The essential oil from the fresh fruits of Litsea euosma W. W. Smith collected at Teng-Thong, Yunnan is the following. Yield of oil 2.5%–3%; d2222 0.8891; nD22 1.4825; αD+1.2˚; aldehyde and ketone content (hydroxylamine method) 90%. The following constituents were identified in this oil: citral 80.5%; α-pincne 0.8%; camphene 0.9%; d-limonene 5.1%; p-cymene 0.3%; methylheptenone 1.4%; d-citronellal 3.9%; d-lina-lool 2.8%; camphor 0.8%; geraniol 1.9%; and α-humulene 1.4%. In addition, a new column chromatography method, named ascending column chromatography method is also reported in the present paper.
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