J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1965, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): -.

• Research Articles •    

Differentiation of the Shoot Apex and its Relationship to the Development of the Vegetative Organs in Spring Wheat (Yu-Chung-Hung and Kansu 96) under Conditions of Different Soil Water Contents

C. L. Pan, H. L. Hu and C. C. Tzao   

Abstract: 1. In each stage of the differentiation of the growing cones of these two varieties of wheat, their morphological characters are the same as of the general wheat, their fourth stage being the sign of the beginning of their reproductive structures. 2. The sequence of the differentiation in the development of spikelets is as follows: first the outer glume, then the inner glume, the lemma of the first flower, the primordium of the first flower, the lemma of the second flower and finally the primordium of second flower, etc.; while it is the palea, the stamens, the pistil and the lodicules for the flower part. 3. The differentiations of the primordiums of stamens and pistil start at the same time as the appearance of the awn. 4. It was found that in Kansu 96 the rate of the differentiation of the growing cones is more rapid, its volume bigger, the number of its spikelets and flowers, the chance of fruitification and its yield higher, than those of Yu-Chung-Hung, but the average individual weight of the grain is lower than that of the latter. 5. The rate of the differentiation of the growing cones will be slowed, and the numbers of spikelets, flowers and grains increased if a high moisture content of soil is present. The shape of the spike is grand and close under irrigation, but under drought it is slender and soft. Although the yield of Yu-Chung-Hung is lower than that of Kansu 96, but it appears to have a higher hydronasty than the latter. 6. It was shown in our investigation that the Kansu 96 appears to be of drought resistance. 7. Under normal conditions and in the same variety, the appearances of the leaf and the node of the stem, and the developmental phases of plants may be suggested as an indication of the differentiation of the growing cones. It is recommended that they can be used as a field crop.

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