J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1964, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (4): -.

• Research Articles •    

The Effect of Coconut Milk, Casein Hydrolysate and Glutamine on the Growth of the Sunflower Young Embryos Grown in vitro

J. S. Kuo and F. H. Wang   

Abstract: The present paper deals with the in vitro culture of young sunflower embryos (0.15–1.0 mm). The modified White's medium was used. The coconut milk (20%), casein hydrolysate and glutamine, used singly or in combination, were tested for their effect on the growth of the young embryos. The experimental results are summarized as follows: 1. The young embryos (less than 0.3 mm) did not grow on the modified White's medium without coconut milk. 2. When cultured on the medium supplemented with 20% coconut milk (autoclaved) alone, 1 “proembryo” (5%) became proliferated. If casein hydrolysate (500 ppm) was added with coconut milk, the viability of the "proembryos" increased to 35%. In another series of experiments the viability of the young differentiating embryos (0.2–0.3 mm) amounted to 27.2% when the coconut milk alone was supplemented, while it increased up to 44.1% when the casein hydrolysate was added at the same time. 3. The viability of the young embryos (0.2–1.0 mm) increased to over 90%, if the glutamine (500 ppm) was supplemented in addition to the coconut milk and casein hydrolysate. The percentage of the embryos with normal growth increases with the age of the embryos at isolation. 4. Many young embryos (generally less than 0.7 mm) proliferated on the cultured medium in an abnormal fashion. At first they proliferate and transform into a mass of callus, then meristematic areas appear on the surface of the callus, and finally the adventive buds are formed from the meristematic areas. Cleavage polycotyledony often appears in the cultured embryos.

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