J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1960, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (1): -.

• Research Articles •    

Morphological Observations on many Kerneled Grains in Rice

P. T. Tin and C. N. Kang   

Abstract: Based upon the morphological observations of the varieties “Yü Sze 3” and “compound rice”, a great number of teratological variations on the structure of the spikelet, the scales and the flower parts has been recorded. From analyzing and studying these variations the following results have been obtained: I. Either in the variety “Yü Sze 3” or in “compound rice”, more than 997o of the spikelets deviate from the normal structure in different degrees, sometimes the variations being very great. The deviations involve the variation of the form and the arrangement of the scales, the increase of the number of the developed flowers per spikelet, the degree of reduction in flowers, the increase of the lemma and the palea and deviation in their arrangement and so forth. These variations begin at the time of the differentiation of the spikelet and become more prominent when the different parts of the spikelet are well formed. 2. More than 1000 flowers of “Yü Sze 3” have been dissected and examined and many kinds of variations in flower parts and scales both in external morphology and in internal structure have been discovered. The stamens and the pistil vary greatly in number. The number of the ovary varies from 1 to 6; sometimes the ovaries fuse at the base but remain free at the upper part. There are certain non-stigmatic processes of various sizes on the ovary. The arrangement of the ovaries also varies. The number of stamens varies from 3 to 11. Sometimes the filaments are fused and two vascular bundles are still separate as revealed in the sectons. The number of the vascular bundles of the palea varies from 3 to 5 (3, 43%, 4, 22%, 5, 35%). The lodicules are usually regular. 3. All the morphological variations of the rice spikelets as described by Michaud (1944) in Oryza sativa and Schweickerdt und Marais (1956) in Oryza barthii are also found in “Yü Sze 3” and “compound rice”. The data indicate that the spikelet of the rice is originally multiflowered. At the same time the authors agree with the explanation of the morphological structure of the rice spikelet as suggested by Stapf (1900), Arber (1934), Chatterjee (1947) and others, namely: the rice spikelet consists of 6 scales, the 2 greatly reduced glumes at the base, 2 sterile lemma, 1 fertile lemma and 1 palea. 4. The increase of the stamens and the pistils in number also denotes the possibility of the flower to change into “doubling”. In case of “Yü Sze 3” the number of the ovary increases while the scales remain unchanged. Meanwhile the pistils are fused at the base and separate vascular bundles lead to separate ovaries. The deviation of the ovary often occurs on the side opposite the lodicules. The variations of the stamens occur mostly in the internal whorl and also opposite the lodicules. From the point of view of organogenesis this part of the flower differentiates rather late ontogenetically; therefore, it may be easily affected by external as well as internal factors. 5. “Yü Sze 3” is considered to be a high yielding variety, but genetically it seems not very stable as yet. But since its many kerneled character may be fixed through further selection, it is possible for it to become a valuable variety.

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