J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1957, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (1): -.

• Research Articles •    

Explanatory Notes on the Wood Anatomical Features Used in the Softwoods Descriptions

T. C. Cheng and K. Y. Wei   

Abstract: In 1041, Phillips developed a “multiple entry” key for the anatomical descriptions of softwoods. The anatomical features selected as being, of value for the purpose of identification were defined, and their significance was discussed. Язенко-Хмелевский (1954) gave more details for the definition and explanation. Their opinions in some parts are different. Having finished our studies on “The Anatomical Features and Uses of the Gymnosper mous Woods of China”, we found that some anatomists have been wrong in their views of the anatomical features of some species. According to the anatomists’ papers and the writers’ findings, 25 main features and 18 minor features were selected for identification purposes. Based on some anatomists’ and the writers’ opinions, the selected features were defined and explained respectively. The Chinese coniferous species are used here in illustrating most of the features. The anatomical features of coniferous woods may be indicated below: Ⅰ. Growth Rings: 1. Distinctness of growth rings; 2. Conspicuousness of latewood; 3. Dimpled grain. Ⅱ. Tracheids: 4. Distribution of bordered pits on R-walls of earlywood tracheids; 5. Arrangement of bordered pits on R-walls of earlywood tracheids; 6. Distribution of bordered pits on R-walls of latewood tracheids; 7. Bordered pits on T-walls of latewood tracheids: 8. Contour of bordered .pits on R-walls of earlywood tracheids; 9. Spiral thickenings; 10. Callitroid thickenings. Ⅲ. Wood Parenchyma: 11. Wood parenchyma present: 12. Distribution of wood paten chyma; 13. Transverse walls (Endwalls) nodular. Ⅳ. Wood Rays: 14. Ray tracheids present; 15. Ray tracheids dentate or non-dentate: 16. Horizontal walls thin or thick; 17. Horizontal walls pitted or unpitted; 18. Indenture: 10. End wails (Tangential, Terminal or Vertical walls) nodular: 20. Cross-field pitting; 21. Height of wood rays. Ⅴ. Resin Canals: 22. Vertical resin canals; 23. Horizontal resin canals: 24. Epithelial cells thick- or thin-walled; 25. Number of epithelial cells per canal. VI. Minor Features: (1) Tracheids: 1. Thickness of tracheid walls; 2. Intercellular spaces; 3. Crassulae; 4. Trabeculae; 5. Torus; 6. Barlikc thickenings on close membrane. (2) Wood Rays: 7. Width of wood rays; 8. Biseriate rays or biseriate in part; 9. Shape and size of ray cells; 10. Thickness of end walls of ray cells; 11. Contents of ray cells; 12. Height of the uniseriate wings of fusiform rays. (3) Resin Canals: 13. Size of resin canals; 14. Tylosoids. (4) Crystals: 15. Crystals present. (5) Maceration: 16. Shape of ends of earlywood tracheids; 17. Distribution of bordered pits on R-walls of tracheids; 18. Length of tracheids.

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