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J Integr Plant Biol, 1956, 5 (3): -, Research Article
Fukien Bamboo Shoots Used as Summer Vegetable
Li Chia-shen, Chang Ku-mun and Chen Sin-ming
doi:
Abstract
There are three species of bamboo, namely, Ma-chu, or Sinocalamusmus latiflorus McClure; Lü-chu,or Sinocalamus Oldhami McClure; and T'ze-chu, or Bambusa stenostachya, Hackel commonly raised in Southern Fukien for shoots as summer vegetable. They may be distinguished by the vegetative characteristics which are briefly mentioned as follows: Sinocalamus latiflorus McClure. Cuhn 20-25 metres long; some node at the basal part of culm without branch, branchlets appearing only at the basal part of branch; leaf 26.7 cm long and 5.5 cm wide, with 11 to 12 lateral veins on either side of main vein; ligula of leaf sheath not hairy; underground stem containing ten tillering nodes; the lower portion of shoot sheath with a few inconspicuous marginal hairs; apical part of shoot sheath oval; sprout conical weighing one to three kilograms generally. Sinocalamus Oldhami McClure. Culm about 10 metres long; some node at the basal part of culm without branch; branchlets appearing only at the basal part of branch; leaf 14–15 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, with 8 to 10 lateral veins on either side of main vein; ligula of leaf sheath hairy; underground stem containing six tillering nodes; upper portion of shoot sheath with a few inconspicuous marginal hairs; apical part of shoot sheath triangular; shoot slightly bended at tip in lateral view, shoot weighing generally less than half a kilogram. Bambusa stenostachya Hackel. Node of calm having a branch; node of branch usually bearing branchlets, each with two sharp thorns at the sides of branchlet; underground stem sympodial, with six tillering nodes; bamboo shoot slightly bended at tip in lateral view; shoot sheath triangular covered densely with dark red hairs; shoot buds irregularly tinged with dark red colour. A shoot weighing generally half a kilogram. Ma-chu, Lü-chu, and T'ze-chu generally grow in clumps. For production of both shoots and bamboos, it is necessary to understand their growth habits. Bamboo shoots originate from the tillers, which are situated at the base of bamboo culms; evidently they are inmature calms. Bamboo shoots also carry active buds at their bases. Upon removal of the shoots at harvest in summer, these basal buds grow into new shoots either immediately or in the following summer. In accordence with their growth habits, we suggest the proper methods of grove management of each of the three above-mentioned bamboo species as follows: 1, In Ma-chu new shoots as well as new culms originate from the buds at the basal part of the previous crop of bamboo shoot after the upper edible portion is harvested. Similarly, the buds of the tiller from the old culms are also capable of sending out new calms, and in so doing, a large quantity of reserved foods is removed; therefore it checks the further sprouting of bamboos. In order to encourage shoot production the above phenomenon should be avoided. Each clump of Ma-chu usually consists of 7 to 8 culms. 2, Lü-chu shoots derive mainly from the tillers of the culms and for this very season it is necessary to keep as many as fifteen to sixteen culms in a bamboo clump. Bamboo calms arise from the basal buds of the edible portion. It is important to allow shoots to grow into culms only toward the end of summer. Should the growth of calm be allowed earlies than this date, too much reserved foods which are necessary for proper shoot production will be used up. 3, T'ze-chu, the sprouts originate from the tillers of old culms. They contain no active buds. The number of culms in a clump is indefinite. The chief function of this species is to defend river banks, while the yield of shoots as vegetable is of secondary importance. Culms of the aforesaid three species: of bamboo begin to produce shoots one year after their usual growth.
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