J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2003, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (4): 452-459.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Unisexual Pistillate Flower Regeneration in Immature Embryo Culture of Wheat

WU Bi-Hua, ZHENG You-Liang, LIU Deng-Cai, ZHOU Yong-Hong, YAN Ze-Hong   

  • Published:2003-04-15


In this experiment, floral development from tissue culture of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated. Immature embryos of 45 wheat cultivars were cultured, and 11.1% of the genotypes regenerated floral organs from the calli near the bases of the green buds or plantlets regenerated. The floral buds were morphologically incomplete with the appearances of unisexual pistillate flowers which were naked, clustered with normal ovaries and exuberant feather-like stigmas, but without stamens, paleas, lemmas and glumes. The histological examination showed that the pistils originated from the meristematic cells near the green buds or plantlets, and the clustered pistils were formed by secondary pistillate regeneration. The development of the feather-like structures was earlier than that of the ovules. Biovule developed from an ovary besides normal uniovule. Statistical analysis by χ2 test for independency demonstrated highly significant difference of flower regeneration among the tested genotypes. Wheat cultivar YA-1 revealed higher percentage (44.4%) than other genotypes, and the response could well be repeated in different years. It was indicated that the floral regeneration of immature embryo explants of YA-1 is relatively stable. The frequency of floral regeneration was mainly regulated by the components in the subculture media, compared with the response of the dedifferentiation media, despite the obviously different components involving basal medium type, inorganic Fe2+ concentration and plant growth regulators. The results suggested the combination of 6-benzylaminopurine, α-naphthalene acetic-acid and doubled inorganic Fe2+ might be more beneficial to inducing the floral development than that of 2,4-D and normal inorganic Fe2+ concentration in subculture medium. However, both immature inflorescence and mature embryo, as cultured explants of YA-1, did not regenerate any flower organs. It is believed that the immature embryo culture of YA-1 can be used to establish ideal experimental system for the study of floral developmental mechanism in wheat. Key words:Triticum aestivum; immature embryo culture; unisexual flower regeneration; genotype; explant

伍碧华 郑有良 刘登才 周永红 颜泽洪

摘要: 通过45个基因型的小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)幼胚培养,发现有11.1%的基因型从靠近再生芽基部的愈伤组织上分化形成花器官.再生花芽呈裸露的、多子房丛生的、具有茂盛羽毛状柱头而缺乏雄蕊、外稃、内稃和颖片的单性雌花. 组织切片观察发现,其雌蕊起源于再生芽附近的分生组织细胞,并通过次生雌蕊再生的方式形成丛生状,其羽毛状结构的发育先于子房中胚珠的分化. 除正常的单胚珠外,还发现双生胚珠分化.χ2独立性检验结果显示,花芽再生率存在强烈的基因型效应.小麦品种YA-1 表现突出(44.4%),其花芽再生潜力能在不同年份间较好地再现,说明YA-1的花芽再生能力具有相对稳定性.与脱分化培养基的效应相比,YA-1的花芽再生效率主要受继代培养基成分的影响. 其中,6-BA、NAA和加倍无机铁盐的配比较2,4-D和正常浓度无机铁盐的配比更有利于YA-1的幼胚培养再生花芽.同时,外植体实验表明,YA-1的幼穗和成熟胚培养无任何成花反应,而其幼胚外植体具有特异的花芽再生能力.据此认为,YA-1的幼胚培养有助于为小麦花发育机理研究建立理想的实验系统. 

关键词: 小麦;幼胚培养;单性花再生;基因型;外植体

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