J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1981, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): -.

• Research Articles •    

Cytological Studies on the Embryogenesis of Hybrids between Oryza sativa L.(Pennisetum sp.

Wang Ching-chu, Sung Ching-san   

Abstract: (1) The pollen grains of Pennisetum can germinate normally on the stigma of rice and the pollen tubes can grow into the style and enter the embryo sacs. However, the process of double fertilization is slow and more or less abnormal and phenomenon of simple fertilization often occurs. (2) It has been found that in the majority of cases the development of the embryos is slow and stays long in the stage of globular embryos, thus, the differentiation of the embryos is very difficult and degeneration of the embryos appears many times. Simple differentiation was observed only in some embryos during 16–24 days after pollination. Normal differenting and developing embryos were not observed. The cause of the degeneration of the embryos is related to the state of endosperm development and also to the non-coordination of the genomes of both parents. (3) The development of the endosperm is abnormal. The change from the free nuclei into the cells in the endosperm is delayed as late as the 8th day after pollination. The whole endosperm tissue is composed of the cell masses which are quite different both in shape and function, a part of these endospemn cells lacks the ability to synthesize starch. The disintegration of the endosperm could be frequently observed during their development. (4) A lots of starch are accumulated in the nucellar cells near the antipodals, It is shown that there was some metabolic confusion resulted from the crossing in the embryo sacs. Based on the above mentioued results the authers consider that the failure of producing seeds by crossing is at least related to the nutrient condition which are essential for the development of embryos. If embryo culture technique is employed at the early stage of the embryo development the hybrid seeds could be obtained.

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