J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1997, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): -.

• Research Articles •    

Relationship Between Embryo and Endosperm Development and Accumulation of Storage Reserves in Barley

Xi Xiang-yuan and Ye Bao-xing   

Abstract: In barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Aente 13) the zygote with one or two degenerated synergids was seen on day 1 after anthesis but the free nuclear endosperm had not yet appeared. On day 2 and 3 after anthesis the embryo was 5- and 10-celled when the endosperm was at the free nuclear phase. When the embryo was pear- and long pear-shaped by day 4, 5 and 6 after anthesis, the endosperm reached the cellularization stage. The embryo was at the coleoptilar stage and the aleutone initial cells appeared by day 8 after anthesis. When the embryo produced its first leaf on day 10 after anthesis, the aleurone cells formed 1 to 2 layers. On day 13 after anthesis the embryo became 2-leafed as the subaleurone layer occurred. The 3-leafed embryo was visible by day 17 after anthesis, at which time the aleurone cells were mostly 3-layered and mitotic divisions ceased and the prismatic and irregular cells of endosperm were differentiated. On day 21 to 29 after anthesis, the embryo was 4-leafed as the endosperm differentiation continued. The embryo was 5-leafed and matured about the time (33 days after anthesis) when the endosperm also became mature. Starch and protein firstly accumulated in the 2-leafed embryo and deposition proceeded acropetally in the scutellum, but appeared firstly in the apex cells in the coleoptile and leaf primordia. Starch disappeared in the upper part of the mature scutellum. Starch was firstly found in endosperm cells by day 6 after anthesis and on day 10 after anthesis protein deposition began in the aleurone layer and endosperm cells. Aleumne grains formation began on day 21 after anthesis and ended by day 29 after anthesis. From day 17 after anthesis onwards, protein bodies in the endosperm cells were mostly clustered together and markedly decreased afterwards. Lipid accumulation was detected in both seutellum cells and aleurone cells by day 17 after anthesis. Caryopsis length, especially the ratio of caryopsis length to lamma length and scutellum length could be used as the morphological indicators to identify the stages of embryo development and endosperm development as well.

Key words: Hordeum vulgare, Embryo and endosperm development, Accumulation of storage reserves, Morphological indicator of development

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