J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1988, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (4): -.

• Research Articles •    

Early Cretaceous Palynofloras from Tarim Basin, Xinjiang

Jiang De-xin, He Zhuo-sheng and Dong Kai-lin   

Abstract: One hundred and eight species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 55 genera found from the Lower Cretaceous Kapushaliang (Kizilsu) Group in the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang have been studied in this paper. The Kapushaliang Group may be divided into the Yageliemu Formation, the Shushanhe Formation and Baxigai Formation in ascending order. The Yageliemu palynoflora is characterized by the predominance of gymnospermous pollen, the relative abundance of pteridophytic spores and the absence of angiospermous pollen. Coniferae is dominant, while Lygodiaceae and Schizaeaceae are important in the flora. The most common species of palynomorphs are Todisporites minor, Cicatricosisporites dorogensis, C. australiensis, Lygodiumsporites subsimplex, Schizaeoisporites cretacius, S. zizyphinus, S. certus. Cibotiumspora paradoxa, Cyathidites australis, C. minor, Biretisporites potoniael, Cycadopites minimus, Pseudowalchia hiangulina, Parvisaccites radiatus, Podocarpidites multesimus, P. canadensis, Alisporites bilateralis, Cedripites cretaceus, C. canadenris, Abietineaepollenites microalatus, Clarsopollis classoides, C annulatus, C. xinjiangensis (sp. nov.), Ephedripites multicostatus, E. tarimensis (sp. nov.), etc . The palynoflora is comparable with those of the lower part of the Lower Xinminbu Formation in northwestern China and the lower part of the Lower Mannville Formation in western Canada, which is considered corresponding from Berriasian to Valanginian in age. The Shushanhe palynoflora is also characterized by dominance of gymnosperms and subdominance of pteridophyta. Some primitive angiospermons pollen grains are found in the upper part of the formation. In addition to the most common species of the above mentioned palynoflora, the important species in the present palynoflora comprise Cicatricosisporites potomacensis, C. orbiculatus, C. subrotundus, Concavissimisporites punctatus, C. verrucosus, C. globosus, lmpardecispora apiverrucata, Trilobosporites crassus, T. trioreticulosus, Pilosisporites verus, P. trichopapillosus, Klukisporites pseudoreticulatus, Verrucosisporites obscurilaesuratur, Converrucosisporites saskatchewanensis, Foraminisporis wonthaggiensis, Cingulatisporites valdensis, C. ruginosus, Jiaohepollis verus, Pityosporites constrictus, etc. More than 40 in dicative species of Early Cretaceous occur in the assemblage. The palynoflora compares clcsely with those of the middle part of the Lower Xinminbu Formation and the Quartz Sand Member of the Lower Mannville Formatton. It is suggested that the Shushanhe Formation should belong to Hauterivian of Barremian in age. The Baxigai palynoflora is basically similar to the Shushanhe palynoflora. But the palynoflora shows an obvious increase in abundance of lygodiaceous spores and angiospermous pollen accompanied by a great reduction of Classopollis and Ephedripltes. Most of the Early Cretaceous species occurring in the above mentioned palynofloras are present. In addition, some Cretaceous species recorded from Aptian and Albian Stages in Europe, North America and Australia, such as Trilobosporites tribotrys, T. trioreticulosus, Coptospora paradoxa, Camarozonosporites insignis, Crybelosporites punctatus, etc., appear in the assemblage. In comparison with the microfloras of the upper part of the Lower Xinminbu Formation, the Upper Mannville Formation and the lower part of the Lower Colorado Group, the Baxigai Forma- tion should be referred to Aptian to Albian in age. Judging from the palynofloras, the early Cretaceous palaeoclimate in the basin should belong to the arid or semi-arid type of the subtropic zone. However, from Barremtan through Albian the climatic conditions might appear relatively wet.

Key words: Berriasian Albian, palynoflora, Palaeoclimate, Tarim

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