J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2009, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (5): 466-475.DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00820.x

• Metabolism and Biochemistry • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

Yawen Zeng1,3*, Luxiang Wang2, Juan Du1, Jiafu Liu2, Shuming Yang1, Xiaoying Pu1 and Fenghui Xiao3   

  1. 1 Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650205, China
    2 Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
    3Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
  • Received:2008-07-13 Accepted:2008-12-30 Published:2009-04-28
  • About author: *Author for correspondence Tel(Fax): +86 871 589 4145; E-mail: zengyw1967@126.com


The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

Zeng Y, Wang L, Du J, Liu J, Yang S, Pu X, Xiao F (2009). Elemental content in brown rice by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy reveals the evolution of Asian cultivated rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 466–475.

Key words: brown rice, core collection, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, mineral element, phylogenetic relationship.

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