J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2016, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (4): 350-361.DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12438

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Hemipteran and dipteran pests: Effectors and plant host immune regulators

Isgouhi Kaloshian1,2* and Linda L. Walling1,3*   

  1. 1Institute of Integrative Genome Biology and Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    2Department of Nematology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
    3Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA


Hemipteran and dipteran insects have behavioral, cellular and chemical strategies for evading or coping with the host plant defenses making these insects particularly destructive pests worldwide. A critical component of a host plant's defense to herbivory is innate immunity. Here we review the status of our understanding of the receptors that contribute to perception of hemipteran and dipteran pests and highlight the gaps in our knowledge in these early events in immune signaling. We also highlight recent advances in identification of the effectors that activate pattern-triggered immunity and those involved in effector-triggered immunity.

Key words: Aphids, effectors, endosymbionts, Hessian fly, planthoppers, resistance genes

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