J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2002, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (5): 617-627.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles    

The Gaoyuzhuang Palaeobiology

XU Zhao Liang, Stanley M. AWRAMIK   


Black bedded, nodular, and lenticular chert and silicified parts of stromatolites from the approximately 1 400-1 600 million year old Gaoyuzhuang Formation, North China, contain remarkably well preserved microflora composed of diverse prokaryotic and possible eukaryotic microbes. Macroscopic algae have also been found. This Formation provides important paleobiological information from which to assess status of Mesoproterozoic life, and to evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions and pre Phanerozoic biostratigraphy. The Gaoyuzhuang Formation has yielded over 100 taxa described by over 10 investigators. Most of the microbial taxa can be divided into three different assemblages according to their paleobiological and paleoenvironmental characteristics.1.The oscillatoriacean/chroococcacean assemblage which occurs in the first member of the Formation and this is interpreted to represent an assemblage from shallow water mat building and mat dwelling taxa with some possible planktonic taxa; 2. the nostocacean assemblage found only in the second member, and includes benthic mat building or mat dwelling taxa; and 3. the chroococcacean assemblage of the fourth member, which represents intertidal to supratidal mat building and allochthonous taxa.Proterozoic microfossils found in chert, especially cyanobacteria, are possibly more valuable as paleoenvironmental indicators than as chronostratigraphic tools because of their morphological conservation, although trends in diversity appear to exist for cyanobacteria in the Proterozoic. The general characteristics of Gaoyuzhuang microfossils, and the fact that most nostocacean chains occur and are preserved with the chain perpendicular to bedding indicate that: (1) the individual size of Gaoyuzhuang microfossils are part of a general trend of increase with time; (2) Gaoyuzhuang deposits are possibly in a fresh water environment and the rate of sedimentation might be equal to or less than the microbial growth rate; (3) the sedimentary model of Gaoyuzhuang might be from intertidal to subtidal or deep sea, and then to intertidal or supratidal; and (4) the eukaryotic organisms had densely occurred when Gaoyuzhuang Formation deposited.

徐兆良1  阿拉米克S.M.2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2.  美国加州大学圣巴巴拉分校地质系克劳德研究室,CA93106)

摘要: 距今14~16亿年的华北地区高于庄组黑色层状、结核状和透镜状燧石与叠层石的黑色硅质部分中保存着极丰富的原核和真核生物微化石.宏观藻类在该组的页岩中亦已发现.本组为评估中元古代生命状况、古环境和前显生宙生物地层提供了重要的生物信息.迄今为止在高于庄组地层中已有百余个化石种被人们认识.根据古植物和古环境的特征这些生物种类可分为三个不同的组合,即:1.颤藻和色球藻组合,出现在高于庄组一段,代表浅水藻席建造者和居住者与一些可能的外来浮游生物的种类;2.念珠藻组合,仅发生在该组的二段,还含一些底栖藻席建造者或居住者的种类;3.第四段的色球藻组合,它代表了潮间带至亚潮带的藻席建造者和外来的种类.元古代燧石中的微化石,尤其是蓝藻化石,尽管在元古代它们就已不断趋向于多样化,但由于它们形态上的保守性,对环境的指示比对地质时代的指示更有价值.高于庄组微化石的特点和大多数链状念珠藻垂直层理保存的事实表明:1.高于庄组微化石的个体大小随时间趋向于增大;2.高于庄组的沉积可能是处于一个淡水环境,且沉积率可能等于或少于微生物的生长率;3. 高于庄组织沉积模式可能是从潮间带至亚潮带或深海,然后再至潮间带或潮上带;4.当高于庄组沉积时真核生物亦已出现.

关键词: 华北地区;中元古代;高于庄组;古生物学

Key words: North China, Mesoproterozoic, Gaoyuzhuang Formation, palaeobiology

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