J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2002, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (8): 895-902.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Floral Organogenesis of Titanotrichum oldhamii (Gesneriaceae)

PAN Kai-Yu, LI Zhen-Yu and WANG Yin-Zheng   

  • Published:2002-08-21


Floral organogenesis of Titanotrichum oldhamii (Hemsl.) Soler., the only species in the genus and endemic to East Asia, was observed under SEM. We found that the development of calyx, corolla and androecium belongs to pentamerous pattern. They come respectively from primordia of calyx, corolla and androecium, and all differentiated from the flower primordium. The zygomorphism of corolla and androecium is derived from quicker growth of the upper lip of corolla and delay in development of the staminode. Initiation of sepal primordia and their development are not consistent in order; the order of initiation is from adaxial central primordium, abaxial two primordia and finally lateral two primordia, while the order of development is first adaxial central sepal, lateral two and finally abaxial two. Sepals are valvate in flower bud. Initiation of corolla lobe primordia and their development are consistent in order, i.e. first abaxial central lobe (central lobe of the lower lip), lateral two (lateral two lobes of the lower lip) and finally adaxial two (two lobes of the upper lip). The aestivation of corolla is imbricate, and the order from outside to inside is the central lobe of the lower lip, lateral two of the lower lip, and finally two of the upper lip or lateral two lobes of the lower lip, two of the upper lip and central one of the lower lip. Stamen primordia are alternate to the corolla lobe primordia, with the anterior two primordia later than the posterior two in initiation; staminode primordium is simultaneous with the posterior two in initiation, but smaller, and opposite to the adaxial carpel (upper lip of stigma). Compared to the patterns of floral organogenesis of Rehmannia (Scrophulariaceae), Whytockia and Rhynchoglossum (Gesneriaceae), the present authors found that the floral organogenesis is diverse and does not form two distinct patterns among these four genera. Based on the results we tend to consider that the conventional demarcation between the Scrophulariaceae and Gesneriaceae using number of ovary locules (two vs one) and placentation (axile vs parietal) is questionable.

潘开玉 李振宇* 王印政

摘要: 在扫描电镜下对台闽苣苔 (T. oldhamii (Hemsl.) Solereder)进行了花部器官形态发生的观察,为探索该类群的个体发育、类群间的系统发育关系和进化趋势提供依据.研究发现该属植物萼片、花冠和雄蕊发生式样均为五数花类型,它们各自来源于花原基上分化出来的萼片原基、花冠原基和雄蕊原基;花冠与雄蕊的两侧对称性与花冠上唇生长稍快和退化雄蕊原基发育迟滞相关;萼片原基的发生和发育的顺序是不一致的:萼片原基发生的式样为近轴中原基-远轴2原基-2侧原基,发育式样则为近轴中萼片-2侧萼片-远轴2萼片,花蕾时为镊合状排列.花冠裂片原基的发生和发育式样是一致的,即远轴中裂原基(下唇中裂片)-远轴2侧裂原基(下唇2侧裂片)-近轴2裂原基(上唇2裂片).花蕾期卷迭式为覆瓦状排列,从外向内:下唇中裂片-下唇2侧裂片-上唇2裂片或下唇2侧裂片-上唇2裂片-下唇中裂片.雄蕊原基与花冠裂片原基互生,前方雄蕊原基在发生上稍迟于后方雄蕊原基,后者与退化雄蕊原基几乎同时发生,但较小,并与近轴心皮(或柱头上唇)对生.将该属与玄参科(Scrophulariaceae)的地黄属( Rehmannia )、苦苣苔科(Gesneriaceae)的异叶苣苔属( Whytockia)和尖舌苣苔属(Rhynchoglossum )的花部器官比较发现,这四个属在这方面呈现出多样性和交叉.过去一直按子房室数和胎座类型划分玄参科(子房2室、中轴胎座)和苦苣苔科(子房1室、侧膜胎座)这一做法受到了质疑.

关键词: 苦苣苔科;台闽苣苔属;花器官发生

Key words: Gesneriaceae, Titanotrichum, floral organogenesis

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