J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2003, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (4): 437-444.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Physiology and Ultrastructure of Azolla imbricata as Affected by Hg2+ and Cd2+ Toxicity

SHI Guo-Xin, XU Qin-Song, XIE Kai-Bin, XU Nan, ZHANG Xiao-Lan, ZENG Xiao-Min, ZHOU Hong-Wei, ZHU Lei   

  • Published:2003-04-15


The toxic effects of different gradient concentrations of Hg2+ and Cd2+ on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b value, photosynthetic O2 evolution, respiration rate, anti-oxidase system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD)) and ultrastructure of the cells of Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai were studied. The results showed that with Hg2+ and Cd2+ increase, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b value, photosynthetic O2 evolution decreased drastically; respiration rate peaked at 2 mg/L pollutant and declined afterwards. The activities of SOD, CAT and POD increased first and decreased afterwards except the activity of POD, which decreased with the increasing of Cd2+ concentration. Ultrastructural observation showed that the extent of ultrastructural damage was much more serious with higher pollutant concentration and longer time of stress. This resulted in swelling of chloroplast, disruption and disappearance of chloroplast membrane and disintegration of chloroplasts; swelling of cristae of mitochondria, deformation and vacuolization of mitochondria; condensation of chromatin in nucleus, dispersion of nucleolus and disruption of nuclear membrane. The experimental results showed: (1) Hg2+ and Cd2+ pollution not only destroyed physiological activities, but also caused irreversible damage to its ultrastructure, thus leading the cells to death; (2) With increase in the stress of Hg2+ and Cd2+, ultrastructural damage was related to the changes of plant physiology; (3) The toxic symptoms of plant showed an evident correlation between dose and effect; (4) The toxicity of Cd2+ on A. imbricata is heavier than that of Hg2+ under the same treatment time and concentration. The lethal concentration of Hg2+ to A. imbricata ranged from 3.5 to 4 mg/L, and that of Cd2+ ranged from 3 to 3.5 mg/L. The damage of cell ultrastructure on Anabaena azollae Strasburger was observed. The results indicated that tolerance of Azolla imbricata for Hg2+ and Cd2+ was higher than that of A. imbricata. Key words: Azolla imbricata; Hg2+; Cd2+; physiology; ultrastructure

施国新  徐勤松 解凯彬 徐 楠 张小兰 曾晓敏 周红卫 朱 蕾

摘要: 研究了在梯度浓度Hg2+和Cd2+胁迫下,满江红(Azolla imbricata  (Roxb.) Nakai)的叶绿素含量、叶绿素a/b比值、光合放氧速率、呼吸速率、抗氧化酶系(超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD))和细胞超微结构受Hg2+和Cd2+的毒害影响.结果显示:随着胁迫程度的增大,叶绿素含量、叶绿素a/b比值、光合放氧速率明显下降,呼吸速率均在2 mg/L浓度下达到峰值,尔后下降; SOD、CAT、POD的活性均出现不同程度的应激性升高(除POD在Cd2+处理时下降),尔后下降.电镜观察发现,随着污染物浓度的增加和胁迫时间的延长,叶绿体出现膨大、破损和解体;线粒体嵴突膨胀和线粒体变形及空泡化;核染色质凝集,核仁消失,核膜破裂.实验结果表明: Hg2+和Cd2+污染不仅损害植物的生理活性,而且也破坏细胞的超微结构,最终导致植物死亡;随着Hg2+和Cd2+胁迫的增大,细胞超微结构的损伤程度和植物的生理变化是同步的;植物受毒害的程度表现出明显的剂量效应关系;在同一处理时间和浓度下,Cd2对满江红的毒性大于Hg2+.Hg2+对满江红的致死浓度为3.5~4.0 mg/L,Cd2为3.0~3.5 mg/L.对满江红鱼腥藻(Anabaena azollae Strasburger)细胞的超微结构变化观察表明,满江红鱼腥藻对Hg2+和Cd2的耐受性明显高于满江红.

关键词: 满江红;Hg2+;Cd2+ ;生理;超微结构

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