J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 1957, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (2): -.
• Research Articles •
C. K. Tseng, C. Y. Wu and K. Y. sun
Commercial cultivation of the haitai (Laminaria japonica Aresch.) in North China has had a rapid
development in recent years. To date, however, the production activities are limited to the cities of Dairen,
Chefoo and Tsingtao and take place only in bays and harbours where sea water is exceptionally fertile
because of continual sewage disposal into these places. Extension of haitai cultivation to other places in
North China has not met with success because of the relatively low fertility of the sea water. We have
succeeded in devising a method of applying fertilizer to the growing Laminaria by putting fertilizer solution
in earthenware bottles and placing them inside bamboo baskets on which the Laminaria was growing.
Because of its porous nature, the earthenware gradually released soluble NaNO3 or NH4NO3 to the fronds of
haitai in its immediate vicinity and the Laminaria was able to grow in a single growing season to commercial
quality inspite of the low fertility of the sea water. By means of this unique method of fertilizer application,
it is now possible to extense haitai cultivation to places originally not fitted for commercial planting of this
The earthenware method of fertilizer application has an important drawback, namely the increase of cost of
production because of additional expenses in the containers, the fertilizer and the human labor involved. It
would be much better economically if naturally fertile bays might be found and utilized for haitai cultivation.
In the East China Sea region along the Chekiang and North Fukien coasts, seawater is very fertile as
evidenced by their rich algal growths, and especially the luxuriant growths of the sea mustard (Undaria
pinnatifida) and Ecklonia kurome. In Tsingtao, both the Undaria and the Laminaria grow only in fertile
places where they compete with each other. It is therefore not unreasonable to infer that as far as the
fertility of the water is concerned, the Chekiang and North Fukien coasts, especially in places such as the
East Saddle island and its vicinity where the sea mustard grows luxuriantly, should be suitable to the growth
of Laminaria japonica. However the Laminaria is a seaweed of the colder seas and the highest summer
water temperature is generally not more than 20 ℃ in the principal places of its production. Its
transplantation to Dairen and then to Tsingtao where tile summer water temperature may reach 28 ℃ or
higher has already shortened its growth period to about 9 months in a year. Its transplantation further south
down to the Chekiang and North Fukien coasts where summer temperature at its highest is over 30 ℃ will
naturally introduce many more difficulties, especially in further shortening the growth period and in
keeping the fronds over the hot summer.
Summering Laminaria in places like Tsingtao has been a great difficulty, and despite special means taken,
such as lowering the fronds to 6–10 meters below the sea surface, losses of the “seed fronds” (for spore
production in the autumn) have been very great. It would therefore be practically impossible to summer
Laminaria in the East China Sea region where in about half of the year, the surface sea temperature is higher
than 20℃ and where the highest summer water temperature would be at least 2–3 degrees higher than
that at Tsingtao. With the introduction of the method of cultivating Laminaria sporelings in the summer at
artificial low temperature (summer sporelings cultivation method), summering Laminaria is no more a
serious problem to the haitai growers. The present problem is rather the relative length of its growth period
in the new region, since the Laminaria must have a minimum growth period in order to achieve sufficient
length and weight to be of commercial value in a single growth season.
It is evident, therefore, that before attempt is to be made to introduce the Laminaria to the East China Sea
region, we must have a precise knowledge of the effect of temperature on the growth and development of
Laminaria japonica. It is thus the aim of the present experiment to study the growth of the Laminaria in
nature under different temperatures, to find out the temperatures favorable and optimum for its growth. A
simple experiment on the development of the Laminaria was also conducted to find out if it would be able to
develop sporangia if continually cultivated at temperatures of and above 10 ℃.
C. K. Tseng, C. Y. Wu and K. Y. sun. The Effect of Temperature on the Growth and Development of Haitai (Laminaria japonica.Aresch.)[J]. J Integr Plant Biol., 1957, 6(2): -.
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