J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2013, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (3): 221-231.DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01169.x

Special Issue: Cell Biology and Functions

• Cell and Developmental Biology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Functional Diversity of CYCLOIDEA-like TCP Genes in the Control of Zygomorphic Flower Development in Lotus japonicus

Shilei Xu1,2,4, Yonghai Luo1, Zhigang Cai1, Xiangling Cao1, Xiaohe Hu1,3, Jun Yang1 and Da Luo1,3*   

  1. 1National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
    2Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    4Laboratory of Cancer Cell Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Tianjin 300060, China
  • Received:2012-05-04 Accepted:2012-08-19 Published:2013-01-09
  • About author:*Corresponding author Tel: +86 20 3994 3513; Fax: +86 20 3994 3512; E-mail: dluo@sibs.ac.cn


CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like TCP genes play key roles in dorsoventral differentiation of zygomorphic flowers in Papilionoideae legumes. In this study, we analyzed the kew mutants whose flowers lost lateral identity, and investigated the diverse functions of three LjCYC genes during zygomorphic flower development in the model legume Lotus japonicus. We showed that kew1 and kew3 are allelic mutants of LjCYC3, a CYC-like TCP gene. Through transgenic experiments, it was shown that LjCYC1 possesses dorsal activity similar to LjCYC2, and that LjCYC3 alone is sufficient to confer lateral activity, and an epistatic effect between dorsal and lateral activities was identified. Sequence analysis revealed a striking alteration at the 3′ end of the LjCYC3 open reading frame (ORF) in comparison with those of LjCYC1 and LjCYC2 ORFs. Furthermore, it was found that LjCYC proteins could interact with each other and possess different activities by means of a transcriptional activity assay. Our data demonstrate that the sequence variation and the subsequent alteration of protein property play important roles in the functional diversity of different LjCYC genes in controlling zygomorphic flower development in Lotus japonicus.

Xu S, Luo Y, Cai Z, Cao X, Hu X, Yang J, Luo D (2013) Functional diversity of CYCLOIDEA-like TCP genes in the control of zygomorphic flower development in Lotus japonicus. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(3), 221–231.

Key words: Lotus japonicus, zygomorphic flower development, TCP genes, kew mutants, activity of transcriptional activation

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