J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2023, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (5): 1297-1311.DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13436

• Plant Biotic Interactions • Previous Articles     Next Articles

A novel secreted protein, NISP1, is phosphorylated by soybean Nodulation Receptor Kinase to promote nodule symbiosis

Baolan Fu1, Zhipeng Xu1, Yutao Lei1, Ru Dong1, Yanan Wang1, Xiaoli Guo2, Hui Zhu1, Yangrong Cao1* and Zhe Yan3*   

  1. 1. State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China;
    2. State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China;
    3. National Key Facility for Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    *Correspondences: Yangrong Cao (yrcao@mail.hzau.edu.cn, Dr. Cao is fully responsible for the distributions of all materials associated with this article); Zhe Yan (yanzhe@caas.cn)
  • Received:2022-09-09 Accepted:2022-12-15 Online:2023-01-13 Published:2023-05-01

Abstract: Nodulation Receptor Kinase (NORK) functions as a co‐receptor of Nod factor receptors to mediate rhizobial symbiosis in legumes, but its direct phosphorylation substrates that positively mediate root nodulation remain to be fully identified. Here, we identified a GmNORK‐Interacting Small Protein (GmNISP1) that functions as a phosphorylation target of GmNORK to promote soybean nodulation. GmNORKα directly interacted with and phosphorylated GmNISP1. Transcription of GmNISP1 was strongly induced after rhizobial infection in soybean roots and nodules. GmNISP1 encodes a peptide containing 90 amino acids with a “DY” consensus motif at its N‐terminus. GmNISP1 protein was detected to be present in the apoplastic space. Phosphorylation of GmNISP1 by GmNORKα could enhance its secretion into the apoplast. Pretreatment with either purified GmNISP1 or phosphorylation‐mimic GmNISP112D on the roots could significantly increase nodule numbers compared with the treatment with phosphorylation‐inactive GmNISP112A. The data suggested a model that soybean GmNORK phosphorylates GmNISP1 to promote its secretion into the apoplast, which might function as a potential peptide hormone to promote root nodulation.

Key words: legume‐rhizobia symbiosis, Nodulation Receptor Kinase, protein phosphorylation, root nodule symbiosis, soybean

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