Lignin with important biological functions is the second abundant natural product, its content is only less than cellulose in plant. But the lignin must be extracted from the cellulose fraction in making paper pulp process leading energy-requiring, cost-increasing and pollution. Also, the lignin has negative effect on the digestibility of silage grass. So it is of considerable interest to reduce the lignin content in resource plants. The paper reviews the progress of lignin biosynthesis and regulation. The feasibility of reducing the lignin content and altering its composition for improving paper pulp production and decreasing pollution are discussed.
A multidisciplinary approach—anatomy, histochemistry and phytochemistry—was used to investigate the leaf structure, the content and the storage location of barbaloin in the leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berg. Xeromorphic characteristics including secondary thickened epidermal cell walls, thicker cuticle, ambiguous differentiation of spongy and palisade tissues in the chlorenchyma, and well-developed aquiferous tissue could be seen in the leaves. Several large parenchymatous cells were observed at the phloem pole of the first ring of vascular bundles. The secondary ring of vascular bundles in the leaf base and the stomata, which are surrounded by five cells, have some classification significance in this species. The density of vascular bundles, the content of barbaloin and the intensity of histochemical reaction differed among leaf numbers L1 (annual leaf), L2 (biennial leaf), L3 (triennial leaf) and L4 (quadrennial leaf), and in different parts of the leaf. These three factors were highest in the youngest leaf, L1, and top parts of all the leaves and lowest in the basal parts and the oldest leaf, L4. The density of vascular bundles had a positive correlation to the content of barbaloin. The histochemical results revealed that the small sheath cells that surrounded the bundles might be the location of barbaloin synthesis and the large parenchymatous cells beneath the sheath might be the storage places of this metabolite.
沈宗根1,2 Elena CHAUSER-VOLFSON2 Yitzchak CUTTERMAN2 胡正海1*
（1. 西北大学植物研究所，西安710069；2.Ben-Gurion Unixersity of the Negev,Jacoob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research and Department of Life Sciences,Sede Boqer Gampus 84990,Israel)
Vernalization is a decisive physiological process for heading, flowering and graining of biennial plants. Variable duration of low-temperature treatment has effects on lateral morphogenesis, such as spike initiation, floral development and graining rate in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The investigation data showed that the duration of vernalization treatment was a decisive factor for the initiation of spike relevant to the time of initiation; the longer the duration at low temperature, the earlier the spike initiation in winter wheat. In the process of the spike differentiation, relatively lower temperature and longer differential time benefited for spike differentiation. Under laboratory condition, a low-temperature treatment for 45 d was optial for flower differentiation and graining in winter wheat. It is novelly recognized that vernalization treatment is essential for development of both spikes and spikelets, besides for promoting initiation of differentiation in winter wheat.
梁铁兵 雍伟东 谭克辉* 徐继 种康*
摘要：春化作用是决定冬性及二年生草本植物成花和穗分化的一个关键生理过程。通过用不同时间的前期低温处理 ,观察对冬小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)后期形态建成中穗分化启动、小花发育及结实率的影响 ,发现前期低温处理对穗启动分化的早晚具有决定作用。春化时间越长 ,穗分化启动越早。较长时间低温有利于促进穗分化。在实验室低温处理条件下 ,促进小花分化和提高结实率的最佳春化处理时间是 45d左右。实验观察表明 ,春化处理促进小麦生长锥分化启动时间和分化速率 ,减少小穗退化。这一结果表明了春化处理不仅是冬小麦开花启动过程所必需的 ,而且是花序正常发育过程和顶部与基部小穗完全结实所不可缺少的。
With reference to the recent achivements about the structure, spectra and kinetics of light-harvesting complex (LHCⅡ) in PSⅡ of higher plants, a four-level model was provided to simulate the energy transfer process from LHCⅡ to the reaction center. On the basis of this model, a set of rate equation was established. Analysis of its algebra solution led to a general picture of energy transfer process in LHCⅡ of higher plants and the strong interaction among pigment molecules in this process. Based on the spectra, kinetics and biological structural data providing some information of energy transfer path and energy dissipation mechanism, it has been found that energy transfer mainly happened between the pigments whose energy level was most closely adjacent, the loss of energy had a close relation to the process of energy transfer and tended to increase with the decrease of energy level. The protective mechanism of antenna system was also discussed.
张舒1,2 贺俊芳1 王水才1 侯洵1 李良璧3 匡廷云3
2. 西北大学光子学与光子技术研究所，西安710069；3. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室，北京100093）
关键词： LHC II；四能级模型；速率方程；传能；耗散
The parameters of fluorescence induction kinetics and the maximal light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rate ( P sat ) of the flag leaves of four cultivars of winter wheat （Triticum aestivum L.） were compared at three different developing stages for the first time. From the blooming stage to the milky stage, the quantum efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry ( Fv/Fm ) declined slightly only at the milk stage. The photochemical quenching co-efficient ( qP )， actual quantum yield of photosystem Ⅱ（PSⅡ）electron transport ( Φ PSⅡ) and P sat decreased substantially (>15%), while the non-photochemical quenching co-efficient ( qN ) increased significantly (>100%). There existed a linear correlation between the Φ PSⅡ and the P sat ( r =0.918). The results indicate that with the senescence of the flag leaves of winter wheat the photosynthetic efficiency including that of the energy transport and the CO2 assimilation significantly decreased.
卢庆陶1 李卫华1 蒋高明1 戈巧英1 郝乃斌1* 孙家柱2 郭仁峻2
（1. 中国科学院植物研究所，北京100093；2. 北京市农林科学院作物研究所，北京100089）
摘要：首次对4种不同品种冬小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)的旗叶的诱导荧光动力学参数和最大净光合速率(Psat)进行了不同时期的比较.随着小麦从扬花期到乳熟期的生长,旗叶的光系统Ⅱ最大光量子效率(Fv/Fm)变化不大,在乳熟期略有下降,光化学淬灭(qP),光系统Ⅱ量子产率(ΦPSⅡ)和Psat有较大的降低(>15%),非光化学淬灭(qN)则有明显的增大(>100%),旗叶的ΦPSⅡ与Psat存在线性关系(r=0.918).说明了在不同小麦品种中生长的衰老使得旗叶光合作用从能量转化到二氧化碳同化速率都显著降低.
High-yielding soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) variety, “Heinong 40”, and one control variety, “Heinong 37”, were used as experimental materials. The activities of C4 pathway enzymes, i.e. PEPCase (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase), NADP-ME (NADP-malic enzyme), NADP-MDH (NADP-malate dehydrogenase), PPDK (pyruvate phosphate dikinase) and RuBPCase (ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carbozylase) were assayed at seedling, blooming, pod-bearing and pod-filling stage. The results indicated that C4 pathway enzymes were expressed differently at different developing stages in both varieties of soybean, but the ratio of PEPCase and RuBPCase showed that the expression of C4 pathway enzymes of “Heinong 40” was higher than those of “Heinong 37” at each stage. The results showed that C4 pathway enzymes were closely related to the crop yielding potential. Therefore, it is possible to select potentially high-yielding soybean variety by the expression of C4 pathway enzymes.
李卫华1 卢庆陶1 郝乃斌1* 戈巧英1 张其德1 杜维广2 匡廷云1
摘要：以不同产量水平的大豆(Glycine max (L.) Merr.)品种"黑农40”和"黑农37”为实验材料,研究了苗期、开花期、初荚期和鼓粒期等不同发育时期的叶片中磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶(PEPCase)、NADP-苹果酸脱氢酶(NADP-MDH)、NADP-苹果酸酶(ADP-ME)、丙酮酸磷酸双激酶(PPDK)等C4途径的主要酶和1,5-二磷酸核酮糖羧化酶(RuBPCase)的活性变化.结果表明两种大豆叶片均含有上述4种酶,而且从PEPCase/RuBPCase的比值看,C4酶在高产大豆"黑农40”叶片中表达较高.表明C4循环途径与大豆产量密切相关.这一结果还暗示有可能通过检测C4途径酶的表达水平及比例,筛选出具有高产潜力的大豆种质.
关键词： 大豆；PEPCase/RuBPCase ;C4循环途径酶；高产潜力
Brassica chinensis L. were foliarly applied with glycinebetaine (GB), as this species is unable to synthesis GB and sensitive to osmotic stress such as salt. The exogenous GB was easily absorbed and transported by the leaf of B. chinensis . Its application (0-20 mmol/L) enhanced the plant tolerance to salt stress. The treatment of 15 mmol/L GB significantly decreased the Na+ accumulation in leaf and root under NaCl stress. This difference in accumulating Na+ and K+ is caused by higher selectivity of root absorption. Furthermore, GB increased H+-ATPase activity of root plasma membrane evidently. This result strongly suggested that in root the decreased Na+ accumulation was caused by the GB accumulation that enhanced the extrusion of Na+ from the cell in some way through plasma membrane transporter, e.g. Na+/H+ antiport driven by H+-ATPase. The GB application was also found to stabilize the plasma membrane, to decrease the loss of chlorophyll, and to stimulate the osmosis induced proline response under salt stress.
许雯 孙梅好 朱亚芳 苏维埃*
摘要：通过对青菜 (BrassicachinensisL .)叶面喷施甜菜碱 ,发现其易于为叶片所吸收并运至其他部位。一定浓度范围内的甜菜碱可明显增强青菜对盐胁迫的抗性。甜菜碱可显著降低盐胁迫下叶和根中Na+的累积 ,这种降低主要是根系对Na+、K+的选择性吸收能力增强所致。盐胁迫下甜菜碱导致根系质膜H+ ATPase活性提高了 45.1 % ,据此推测甜菜碱降低植株中Na+的累积很可能部分由于促进根系质膜的主动排Na+过程。另外 ,甜菜碱对抗盐性的增强还体现在对叶片质膜和叶绿素的稳定作用和对脯氨酸合成的促进。
Nine rice Oryza sativa L.） mutant lines lacking the seed storage glutelin α-2 subunit were obtained from the progenies of fertilized egg cells treated with N-methy-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The mutants could be classified into three types: the α-1 subunit increased type (α-1H/α-2L), decreased the β-2 subunit decreased type (β-2L/α-2L) and the α-3 subunit increased type (α-3H/α-2L) according to their SDS-PAGE profiles. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis revealed that all of the mutants lacked a polypeptide of pI 6.71/α-2, while new polypeptides of pI 6.50/α-1 and pI 6.90/α-3 formed in α-1H/α-2L and α-3H/α-2L mutants respectively. Although the β-2L/α-2L mutants did not form new polypeptide, their pI 8.74/β-2 polypeptide was also decreased, suggesting that the two polypeptides decreased in β-2L/α-2L mutants might derive from the same glutelin precursor. These mutant lines are very useful in studying genetic characterisation,the mechanism of genetic regulation on biosynthesis, gene function and proteomics of rice seed storage glutelin.
曲乐庆1 *魏晓丽1* 佐藤光2 小川雅广3 熊丸敏博2 贾旭1
（1. 中国科学院遗传研究所，北京100101；2. 日本国立九州大学农学部，福冈812-8581；
摘要：利用灵敏的等点聚焦与SDS_PAGE结合的双向电泳分析方法,从水稻(Oryza sativa L.)种子贮藏谷蛋白中至少可以分离为13条酸性和19条碱性多肽.依据谷蛋白多肽的表现量推测,水稻谷蛋白主要由约6个主效基因控制.肽图谱与N_端氨基酸序列分析可清晰将谷蛋白酸性多肽分为两组.此两组恰好与谷蛋白GluA和GluB两个cDNA克隆组相吻合.
A lectin protein（SFL） with molecular weight about 32 kD which markedly agglutinated rabbit and human red blood cells was purified from the roots of Sophora flavescens Ait. This protein, and apparently inhibited the growth of Fusarium vasinfectum Atk., Gibberella saubinetii (Mont.) Sacc., and Piricularia oryzae Cav. A set of degenerate PCR primer was synthesized according to the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. The full-length cDNA coding the lectin was cloned by RT-PCR and 5′-RACE and sequenced (GenBank AF285121). The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that a preprotein with 284 amino acid residues is firstly translated and then processed to a mature protein with 254 amino acids. A N-Glycosylation site is the Asn 182 residue.
马志刚1 鄢波1 黄兴奇1 王铃仙1 曾仲奎2
（1. 云南省农业科学院生物技术研究所，昆明650223；2. 四川大学生物系，成都610064）
摘要：自苦参(Sophora flavescens Ait.)块根中分离得到一种32 kD的凝集素蛋白(SFL),其对兔血及人的4种血型都具有很强的凝集活性,对棉花枯萎病菌(Fusarium vasinfectum Atk.)、小麦赤霉病菌(Gibberella saubinetii (Mont.) Sacc.)和水稻稻瘟病菌(Piricularia oryzae Cav.)的生长有明显抑制作用.依此凝集素蛋白N端部分氨基酸序列合成引物,通过5′、3′_RACE技术,从苦参块根总RNA中克隆到了编码这一凝集素蛋白的全长cDNA序列(已注册GenBank, AF285121).根据全长cDNA序列推导这一cDNA序列编码一个284个氨基酸的前体蛋白,而分离得到的凝集素蛋白为一个254个氨基酸残基的成熟蛋白,在其第182位点含一个N糖基化位点N-L-S.
Transferring foreign DNA into plant cells by biolistic and Agrobacterium -mediated methods may result in random integration of different copy numbers of the transgene, and different proportions of intact vs. rearranged copies of the transgene. This may, in turn, affect transgene expression levels. To test the above hypothesis, we first introduced the same plasmid, pAc1PG-CAM, into rice (BX)Oryza sativa L.) calli separately by the biolistic method and by the Agrobacterium -mediated method. To show whether different plasmids may affect the results, we also introduced pTOK233 by the Agrobacterium -mediated method and pJPM44 by the biolistic method. Transgene expression of R0 plants was monitored by histochemical analysis of GUS activity. Transgene copy number was determined by Southern blot analysis after digesting genomic DNA with an enzyme that has a unique cutting site within the input plasmid. The total genomic DNA was also digested by a two-cut enzyme (the cuts are located at two sides of a given transgene expression cassette), followed by Southern blotting analysis, for determining the number of intact transgene expression cassettes. Our data showed that Agrobacterium -mediated transformation resulted in lower transgene copy number (average between 2.1 and 2.3) in transgenic rice plants, compared with those plants obtained by the biolistic method (average between 4.2 and 5.6). The frequency of DNA rearrangement in expression cassettes is lower in transgenic rice plants obtained by the Agrobacterium -mediated method than those obtained by the biolistic method. The average rearrangement frequency is 0.07 to 0.106 for the Agrobacterium -mediated method, and 0.57 to 0.66 for the biolistic method. Our results suggest that it is better to compare the number of intact expression cassettes instead of the total copy number of the transgene in demonstrating their influence on the level of transgene expression. This is the first report on the frequency of expression cassette rearrangement in transgenic plants transformed with the same plasmid by two different transformation methods.
程在全* 黄兴奇* Ray WU**
(Department of Molecular Bioligy and Genetics,Cornell Unxersity,Ithaca,NY 14853,USA)
Genetic diversity at Gli-1, Gli-2 and Glu-1 loci was investigated in 32 accessions of Chinese endemic wheat by using acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (APAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE. There were 8 gliadin and 3 high-molecular-weight (HMW)-glutenin patterns in 14 Yunnan hulled wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. yunnanese King) accessions, 9 gliadin and 4 HMW-glutenin patterns in 9 Tibetan weedrace ( T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao ) accessions, and 9 gliadin and 5 HMW-glutenin patterns in 9 Xinjiang rice wheat ( T. petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch.) accessions. One accession (i.e. Daomai 2) carried new subunits 2.1+10.1 encoded by Glu-D1 . Among the three Chinese endemic wheat groups, a total of 10, 14 and 11 alleles at Gli-1 locus; 11, 14 and 12 alleles at Gli-2 locus; and 5, 6 and 8 alleles at Glu-1 locus were identified, respectively. Among Yunnan hulled wheat, Tibetan weedrace and Xinjiang rice wheat, the Nei's genetic variation indexes were 0.3798, 0.5625 and 0.5693, respectively. These results suggested that Tibetan weedrace and Xinjiang rice wheat had higher genetic diversity than Yunnan hulled wheat.
魏育明* 郑有良 周永红 刘登才 兰秀锦 颜泽洪 张志清
摘要：运用APAGE和SDS_PAGE方法,研究了32份中国特有小麦Gli-1、Gli-2和Glu-1位点的遗传多样性.在14份云南铁壳麦(Triticum aestivum ssp. yunnanese King)中,共出现8种醇溶蛋白带型和3种高分子谷蛋白带型.在9份西藏半野生小麦(T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao )中,发现9种醇溶蛋白带型和4种高分子谷蛋白带型.在9份新疆稻麦(T. petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch.)中,观察到9种醇溶蛋白带型和5种高分子谷蛋白带型,其中1份新疆稻麦(稻麦2)具有Glu-D1编码的新亚基2.1+10.1.在这3种中国特有小麦群体中,Gli-1位点分别检测出10、14和11个等位基因;Gli-2位点各具有11、14和12个等位基因;Glu_1位点也分别出现5、6和8个等位基因.云南铁壳麦、西藏半野生小麦和新疆稻麦群体内的Nei's遗传变异系数分别为0.3798、0.5625和0.5693.这些结果说明,与云南铁壳麦相比,西藏半野生小麦和新疆稻麦群体内的遗传变异相对较大.
A linkage map consisting of 221 markers was constructed based on a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from the cross between Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was carried out for grain appearance traits such as grain length, grain width and grain shape in rice in 1998 and 1999. Based on interval mapping method at the threshold LOD≥2.4, six, two and two QTLs were detected for grain length, grain width and grain shape, respectively, in 1998; In 1999, three, two and two QTLs were identified for the three traits, respectively. Of them, seven QTLs were simultaneously identified in both of the years. The QTL with large effects located in the interval RG393-C1087 on chromosome 3 not only controlled the grain length, but also influenced the grain shape. It explained 57.5%, 61.4% and 26.7%, 29.9% of phenotypic variation of the grain length and the grain shape in two years, respectively. The QTL with large effects located in the interval RG360-C734B on chromosome 5 affected the grain width and the grain shape. It explained 44.2%, 53.2% and 32.1%, 36.0% of phenotypic variation of the grain width and the shape in two years, respectively. Eight, five and five QTLs were identified for the grain length, width and shape, respectively, based on mixed linear-model composite interval mapping method at P =0.005. Their general contributions were 58.81%, 44.75%, and 57.47%. One QTL for the grain length was found to be significant interaction with environment.
邢永忠 谈移芳 徐才国 华金平 孙新立
摘要：用区间作图和混合线性模型的复合区间作图两种方法 ,对水稻 (Oryzasativa L .)珍汕 97和明恢 6 3组合的重组自交系群体的谷粒外观性状———粒长、粒宽和粒形进行了数量性状基因 (QTL)定位。用区间作图法在LOD≥ 2 .4水平上 (近似于α =0 .0 0 5) ,1 998年对粒长、粒宽和粒形分别检测到 6、2和 2个QTLs ;1 999年对以上 3个性状分别检测到 3、2和 2个QTLs。其中 7个QTLs在两年均检测到。位于第 3染色体RG393-C1 0 87区间的QTL效应大 ,同时影响粒长和粒形 ,两年贡献率分别为 57.5%、6 1 .4%和 2 6 .7%、2 9.9%。位于第 5染色体RG36 0 -C734B区间的QTL效应大 ,同时影响粒宽和粒形 ,两年贡献率分别为 44.2 %、53.2 %和 32 .1 %、36 .0 %。用混合线性模型的复合区间作图法在P =0 .0 0 5水平上 ,对粒长、粒宽和粒形分别检测到 8、5和 5个QTLs ,共解释各自性状变异的 58.81 %、44.75%和 57.47%。只检测到 1个QTL与环境之间存在显著互作。
To study growth responses of the roots of Panicum miliaceum L. to heterogeneous supply of nutrients. The authors analyzed the effects of the nutrient levels in both original patches (O) and destination patches (D) on the root growth of P. miliaceum when its roots were allowed to extend from original patch into destination patch. When the nutrient levels in the original patches were low, coarse root biomass ratio (coarse root biomass in the D/total coarse root biomass), coarse root length ratio (coarse root length in the D/total coarse root length), coarse root surface area ratio (coarse root surface area in the D/total coarse root surface area) and fine root length ratio (fine root length in the D/total fine root length) were greater in the destination patches with lower nutrient levels than in the destination patches with higher nutrient levels, while fine root length, fine root length density, fine root surface index, and fine root surface area density were smaller in the former than in the latter. When the nutrient levels in the original patches were high, fine root length, fine root length density, fine root surface area index and fine root surface density were greater in the destination patches with lower nutrient levels than in the destination patches with higher nutrient levels, coarse roots did not respond to the nutrient levels in the destination patches significantly. When the roots extended from the original patches with the same nutrient level into the destination patches with contrasting nutrient levels, fine root biomass and its percentage allocation did not respond to the nutrient levels in the destination patches significantly, whereas both root length and root surface area did. This indicates that the fine roots of P. miliaceum responded to difference in nutrient supply by plasticity in their length and surface area, rather than in their root biomass.
摘要：为揭示黍(Panicum miliaceum L.)根系对异质养分环境的生长反应,作者研究了黍根系从起始斑块向目标斑块水平生长时,起始斑块和目标斑块养分水平对根生长的影响.就低养分起始斑块而言,粗根生物量、粗根长度、粗根表面积和细根长度在高养分目标斑块中的分配比例均小于其在低养分目标斑块中的分配比例,而细根长度及其密度、细根表面积指数及其密度的变化恰好相反.就高养分起始斑块而言,高养分目标斑块的细根长度、细根长度密度、细根表面积指数和细根表面积密度均小于低养分目标斑块,而粗根对目标斑块中养分状况的反应不明显.当黍根系从相同的起始斑块进入不同的目标斑块后,目标斑块的养分状况对细根生物量及其分配无影响,而显著影响细根长度和表面积.这指示细根是通过长度和表面积可塑性而不是生物量变化响应目标斑块中的养分差异.
There were two peaks of seasonal changes of the calorific value in shoot and leaves of Calamagrostis epigejos in middle June and in the early August respectively. The calorific value in stem presented a single peak curve which appeared in the early August. The calorific values in inflorescence and dead standing showed a fluctuation and the peak value of inflorescence was in the early September and that of dead standing was in middle June. The seasonal changes of energy standing crop on the above-ground part synchronized with that of the biomass, which presented a single peak curve. The energy allocated to each organ in different seasons was in the order as leaves >stem >inflorescence in middle June, leaves >stem >dead standing >inflorescence in early July, leaves >stem >inflorescence >dead standing in middle July, and leaves >stem >dead standing >inflorescence from August to September. The vertical allocation of energy in the parts of above-ground was that the energy value gradually increased from the surface to the 20 cm high level and the maximum value at the 10-20 cm high level which made up 26.91% of energy on the above-ground partion, and then it was decreased. In the under-ground portion, the energy value progressively decreased with depth and the maximum value was at 0-10 cm depth layer which made up 69.01% of energy of the under-ground portion.
郭继勋1 王若丹2 王娓1
（1. 东北师范大学草地研究所，长春130024；2. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心，北京100093）
摘要：拂子茅(Calamagrostis epigejos)全株和叶的热值的季节变化规律相似,呈双峰曲线,2个峰值分别出现在6月中旬和8月初.茎热值的变化呈单峰曲线,峰值出现在8月初.穗和立枯体的热值变化呈波动型,穗的最大值出现在9月初,立枯体出现在6月中旬.地上部能量现存量的季节变化与生物量变化同步,呈单峰曲线.不同季节能量在各器官中分配比率为:6月中旬为叶＞茎＞穗;7月初为叶＞茎＞立枯体＞穗;7月中旬为叶＞茎＞穗＞立枯体;8月至9月为叶＞茎＞立枯体＞穗.能量的垂直分配,地上部为从地表至20 cm高度逐渐增加,最大值在10～20 cm层占地上部总能量的26.91%,然后逐渐下降.地下部能量垂直分布规律是随着深度增加而逐渐减少,能量集中分布在地下0～10 cm层,占地下部总能量的69.01%.
With the aid of the geographic information system (GIS) software ARC/INFO and remote sensing (RS) digital image-processing software ERMapper, using multitemporal National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) mormalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and the ground meteorological data, and on the basis of the estimated photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ) and net primary production ( NPP ), we estimated the solar energy use efficiency ( e ) in Guangdong, China, which lies mainly in subtropical and tropical monsoon climate zone. The results were: (1) the assessed values of e were consistent with the values measured before in the same regions, so the above method for the estimation of e is effectual and reliable; (2) the annual average of e for Guangdong varied between 0-2.96%, and for the whole region was (1.43±0.53)%; (3) the zonal variations of e in Guangdong were very obvious, so the spatial distribution of e values indicated the feature of ‘uneven’ vegetation in Guangdong, together with the distribution of NPP and other indexes; and the seasonal variations of e in Guangdong were very remarkable too. The mean of e in summer (Apr. to Oct.) was 2.9 times as high as that in winter (Nov. to next Mar.); this difference depended on the features of solar radiation and the vegetation, and, the seasonal variations could be attributed to those in temperature and precipitation; (4) even in the evergreen broad-leaved forests, the values of e for different subtypes were not the same and with large seasonal changes.
郭志华1 彭少麟2,3* 王伯荪2
（1. 中国林业科学院森林生态环境与保护研究所，北京100091；2. 中山大学生物系，广州510275；
关键词： 光能利用率；时空格局；多时相NOAA-AVHRR NDVI；地理信息系统；广东省
The paper deals with a new species of megaalgal fossil— Enteromophites intestinalis sp. nov. found in Chengjiang Biota in the early Cambrian. A morphological comparison of the living Enteromorpha and fossil Enteromophites indicates that there probably is a close relationship between these two genera. Based on a study on the surroundings of living Enteromorpha, Enteromophites intestinalis sp. nov. might have lived in the environment of sea or salt water.
A new eremophilane sesquiterpenoid, along with two known ones, was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the aerial part of Coleus xanthanthus C. Y. Wu et Y. C. Huang. Their structures were elucidated as 4,5,11-trimethyl-8,9-seco-1(10),7(11)-eremophiladien-8,12-olid-9-oic acid (1), 2,9-dioxoeuryopsin (2) and 9-oxoeuryopsin (3) by spectral methods. The H-NMR and 13C-NMR data of compounds 1, 2 and 3 were unambiguously assigned on the basis of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.
梅双喜1 张宏杰1 姜北1 李朝明1 吕扬2 龚宁波2 郑启泰2 孙汉董1*
（1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所，昆明650204；2. 中国医学科学院药物研究所，北京100050）
摘要：从黄鞘蕊花(Coleus xanthanthus C. Y. Wu et Y. C. Huang)的乙酸乙酯部分首次分离得到3个艾里莫芬烷型倍半萜类化合物(1～3),其结构由NMR波谱技术及单晶X衍射分析确定.其中,化合物1为新化合物, 命名为8,9_断裂_艾里莫芬_1(10),7(11)_二烯_8,12_内酯_9_酸.首次对化合物2 (2,9_二氧代优瑞坡森)和3 (9_氧代宽眼菊素)的1H-NMR和13C-NMR谱进行了全归属.
徐云远 种康* 许智宏* 谭克辉
摘要：利用RNA原位杂交技术分析了春化相关基因ver203F在冬小麦(Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jingdong No.1)胚芽组织内的表达模式.结果表明,ver203F基因的转录本在春化处理的冬小麦胚芽幼叶中有明显的积累,而在胚芽鞘以及生长点处却未见杂交信号.茉莉酸诱导冬小麦胚芽后的基因表达模式与春化处理后的模式相似.实验结果暗示感受春化作用的信号部位可能是胚芽的幼叶,细胞对春化的应答与茉莉酸介导的信号转导途径有关.
王关林1 杨怀义1,2* 夏然1 方宏筠1 景士西3
（1.辽宁师范大学生命科学学院，大连116029；2. 中国科学院微生物研究所，北京100081；3. 沈阳农业大学园艺系，沈阳110161）
摘要：采用RACE技术从草莓(Fragaria ananassa Duch.)成熟果实中分离克隆了膜联蛋白(annexin)基因的cDNA 5′-端未知序列,并通过测序确定了翻译的起始密码位点、终止密码位点及完整的读码框,从而首次获得了草莓果实膜联蛋白基因的cDNA全序列,命名为annfaf(annexin of Fragaria ananassa fruit)基因.
关键词： 草莓；果实膜联蛋白；cDNA 克隆;annfaf(annexin of Fragaria ananassa fruit)基因
赵云 杜林方* 杨胜洪 李世崇 张义正
摘要：对黄化突变体Cr3529和野生型油菜(Brassica napus L.) 3529叶绿体的超微结构和组成进行了比较.与野生型相比, 突变体Cr3529叶片具有较少的类囊体、较少的垛叠膜区和较少的叶绿素含量.突变体的Chl a/Chl b比值较高, 是野生型的2倍.电泳结果表明,突变体类囊体膜中LHCⅡ和其三聚体LHCⅡ*的含量减少.SDS-PAGE分析显示,LHCⅡ的脱辅基蛋白在突变体类囊体膜中明显减少.免疫印迹进一步表明,所有LHCⅡ组分的含量仅为野生油菜的类囊体膜的1/3.突变体Cr3529的天线系统比野生型3529的小.
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