The biosafety of genetically engineered plants has been of concernment in society and science in recent years. The issue of 35S promoter of CaMV has been contentious because of its wide use in plant genetic engineering. The debate on the safety and potential risks of the 35S promoter will be discussed here. Some of concerns are expressed about the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes and vector backbone sequences. Various methods and strategies are currently being developed for the marker gene excision and elimination of vector backbone sequences from transgenic plants. In this review, the CRE/ lox system which could get rid of the marker geens and vector backbone sequences will be discussed in detail. Advances in the research of the safety assessment of genetically modified plants using the CRE/ lox system will also be described.
董志峰1,2* 马荣才3 彭于发4 管华诗1
（1. 青岛海洋大学，青岛266003；2. 中国生物工程开发中心，北京!100081；
3. 北京农业生物技术研究中心，北京100089; 4. 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所，北京100094）
The early floral ontogeny of three subfamilies, viz. Verbenoideae, Viticoideae and Caryopteridoideae of Verbenaceae (s.l.), was compared. Two differently initiated patterns were found. In the present species of Verbenoideae, there is a unidirectional sequence of organogenesis, from abaxial to adaxial side of the floral apex. While the abaxial paired sepal, petal and stamen arise sequentially, the adaxial paired sepal, petal and stamen do not appear or appear in a much earlier stage. The centripetal whorled sequence of organogenesis appears in Viticoideae and Caryopteridoideae, where sepal primordia arise simultaneously or successively (from adaxial to abaxial). After completion of sepal initiation a plastochron is indicated, during which time a change to the induction of petal takes place, and five petals appear simultaneously, followed by initiation of four stamens. Events of floral organogenesis support the phylogeny inferred from morphological data and rbcL sequence analysis, i.e. the subfamily Verbenoideae does not form a monophyletic group with the subfamilies Viticoideae and Caryopteridoideae.
梁汉兴 李璐 彭华!*
摘要：对广义马鞭草科 (Verbenaceae)的 3个主要亚科的花器官早期发生进行了比较研究 ,发现花器官发生的两种不同类型 :在马鞭草亚科中 ,存在从远轴至近轴单向发生的顺序 ,首先远轴位置的萼片、花瓣、雄蕊相继发生 ,此时近轴位置的萼片、花瓣和雄蕊尚未出现或处于更幼小的时期 ;在牡荆亚科和莸亚科中表现为向心轮状发生的顺序 ,萼片同时或依次出现 ,萼片发生完成后 ,有一段转向花瓣形成的时间间隔 ,5枚花瓣几乎在同一时间出现 ,随后是 4枚雄蕊同时发生。花器官发生的研究结果与形态学和rbcL序列分析所得出的系统学推断一致 ,支持马鞭草亚科和其余亚科不能形成一个单系群的观点。
The dynamic changes of nucleolar ultrastructure in the cell cycle of Physarum polycephalum Schw. were studied by an en bloc silver-staining method. The results showed that the nucleolus was large in size and situated in the center of the nucleus in late G2-phase, and the fibrillar centers, dense fibrillar components and granular components could be observed in the nucleolus. During prophase, the nucleolus moved towards the periphery of the nucleus and in late prophase disintegrated near the nuclear envelope. In metaphase, the disintegrated nucleolar components were dispersed in masses and located at the periphery of the chromosomal region of the nucleus. No specifically silver-stained area and argentophilic protein sheath were observed on the chromosomes, but there were some big dispersed silver particles within the chromosomes. During telophase the nucleolar components moved towards the two poles along with the chromosomes and co-existed with the decondensing chromatin in daughter nuclei. The nucleolar components then gradually converged with one another and separated from the chromatin. A big nucleolus was formed in the nucleus about 120 min after the completion of mitosis.
曾宪录1* 焦明大1 王晓光2 宋朝霞1 郝水1
（1. 东北师范大学遗传与细胞研究所，长春130024；2. 长春师范学院生物系，长春130032）
摘要：以同步化培养的多头绒泡菌(Physarum polycephalum Schw.)原生质团为材料,应用整体银染技术,电镜下研究了核仁在细胞周期中的超微结构变化。结果表明:核仁成熟时比较大,位于细胞核中央。核仁内可区分出纤维中心、密集纤维成分和颗粒成分等。前期时,核仁向边缘移动,前期末在近核膜处解体,解体的核仁物质主要呈团块状散开。中期时,解体的核仁物质位于细胞核中央染色体区域的周围,染色体上没有特异的银染区域,染色体周边也看不到银染的“鞘”状结构,但在染色体中可见一些散在的银染大颗粒。末期时,核仁物质与染色体一起到达两极,在子细胞核中与正在解集缩的染色质共存一起。以后核仁物质逐渐汇合并与染色质分开。大约在有丝分裂结束120 min后,在细胞核中形成一个居中央位置的大核仁。结果提示,低等真核生物的核仁结构和周期变化与高等真核生物的不完全相同。
Surfactants are widely used in the purification and research of structure and function of the protein complexes in photosynthetic membrane. To elucidate the mechanism of interaction between surfactants and photosystem Ⅰ (PSⅠ), effects of two typical surfactants, Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on PSⅠ, were studied at different concentrations. The results were: SDS led to the reduction of apparent absorption intensity and blue shift of absorption peaks; while Triton X-100 led to the decrease of apparent absorption intensity in red region and blue shift of the peak, but to the increase of apparent absorption intensity in blue region. The fourth derivative spectra show that the longwavelength (669 nm and 683 nm) absorbing chlorophyll a was affected greatly and their relative changes of absorbance were axially symmetrical. The presence of surfactant could make the long wavelength fluorescence emission decrease greatly and a new fluorescence peak appeared around 680 nm, it was obvious that the surfactant interceded the transfer of excitation energy from antenna pigments to reaction center. The surfactants might affect the microenvironment of proteins, even the structure of PSⅠ protein subunits and hence changed the binding status of pigments with protein subunits, or the pigments might be released from the subunits. All of these might affect the absorption and the transfer of excitation energy.
郁飞1 唐崇钦1* 辛越勇1 彭德川1 李良璧1
匡廷云1 李济云2 李振声2
摘要：表面活性剂在光合膜色素蛋白复合物的分离纯化和结构功能研究中有十分广泛的应用。为了探讨表面活性剂与光系统Ⅰ(psⅠ)的相互作用机理,选择了两种具代表性的表面活性剂trit on x-100和十二烷基磺酸钠(sds),选取一系列浓度值研究了它们对psⅠ的影响。结果表明,sds处理时,psⅠ在红区和蓝区的表观吸收峰值下降,峰位蓝移;triton x-100使红区吸收峰值下降,峰位蓝移,但却使psⅠ颗粒蓝区表观吸收升高。四阶导数光谱显示小麦(triticum aestivum l.) psⅠ颗粒中较长吸收波长的669 nm和683 nm状态叶绿素a分子受影响较大,两者吸光度值互为消长且变化呈轴对称形式,而649 nm组分(叶绿素b)在两者作用下变化较小。表面活性剂使psⅠ颗粒长波长荧光急剧下降,并在680 nm左右出现新的荧光发射峰,可见其阻碍了激发能由天线色素向反应中心的传递。以上的变化说明sds和triton x-100对psⅠ载体蛋白的微环境甚至结构产生影响而导致色素与蛋白结合状态发生改变,或从蛋白上脱落下来 ,最终影响到光能的吸收和能量传递。
Angiosperms need light to synthesize chlorophyll, but lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) embryo was suspected to have the ability to form chlorophyll in the dark because lotus embryo can turn into green under the coverage of four layers of integuments (cotyledon, seed coat, pericarp, lotus pod) which were thought impossible for light to pass through. The authors excluded this possibility based on two experimental results: First, enclosing the young lotus pod with aluminium foil, the growth of louts embryo continued, but the chlorophyll formation was seriously inhibited. A lot of protochlorophyllide, chlorophyll precursor, were accumulated, most of which were combined with LPOR (light dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase). Second, DPOR (dark or light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase) was the enzyme necessary for chlorophyll synthesis in the dark. The genes encoding DPOR were conservative in many species, but no homologues could be found in lotus genome. Taken together, authers' results clearly demonstrated that lotus embryo synthesizes chlorophyll only through the light-dependent pathway.
季宏伟 李良璧 匡廷云*
The method for purifying actin from maize pollen by poly-L-proline-sepharose affinity chromatography was modified by improving some of the experimental conditions (concentration of ATP and K+) and eliminating the use of recombinant human platelet profilin. SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, electron microscopy and ultraviolet absorption analysis demonstrated that the quality of the purified actin was similar to that obtained with the previous method. The yield was 73.5% of that of the previous method. However, the time required for preparation was 2/3 of that in the previous method and the cost of purifying recombinant profilin was saved. Furthermore, a large amount of purified pollen profilin could be obtained at the same time.
易克喜1 ! 陶志华1 任海云1,2
摘要：根据ATP和钾离子影响肌动蛋白聚合及肌动蛋白与前纤维蛋白结合的实验结果,通过对以往报道的利用多聚脯氨酸_琼脂糖亲和柱层析法纯化植物肌动蛋白过程中ATP及钾离子浓度的改变 ,不需加外源前纤维蛋白,可得到较大量高纯度具活性的花粉肌动蛋白。SDS凝胶电泳、免疫印迹、电镜负染及紫外检测表明,所得肌动蛋白在纯度、聚合特性等方面均与原方法所得结果相同。肌动蛋白产率为原方法的73.5%,而整个肌动蛋白提纯过程所需时间缩短了1/3, 节省了纯化重组前纤维蛋白所需的费用,消除了外源前纤维蛋白的使用对一些实验室的限制,而且同时得到了大量纯化的花粉前纤维蛋白。
Ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence experiments have been performed with core antennas CP43 and CP47 of PS Ⅱ. Their dynamic fluorescence spectra were obtained with excitation wavelength 514.5 nm. For CP43, the emission spectrum was found to be from 640 to 780 nm with a peak at ～680 nm and the lifetime of fluorescence was 3.54 ns. For CP47, the emission spectrum was from 630 to 775 nm with a peak at ～691 nm and the fluorescence lifetime was 3.22 ns. The fluorescence emission efficiencies of Chl a in CP43 and CP47 were calculated to be approximately 38.3% and 40.6%, respectively. The energy transfer from β-Car to Chl a in CP43 and CP47 was discussed. The rates of energy transfer from β-Car to Chl a were measured to be about 9.6×1011 s-1 and 1.3×1012 s-1 and energy transfer efficiencies 47.5% and 66.5% respectively. The edge-edge distances between β-Car and Chl a in CP43 and CP47 were estimated to be ～0.110 nm and ～0.085nm respectively.
贺俊芳1,2王水才1 张舒1,2 贺锋涛1,2 单际修3 匡廷云3
（1. 中国科学院西安光学精密机械研究所瞬态光学技术国家重点实验室，西安710068；2."$ 西北大学现代物理研究所，西安710069)；3. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室，北京100093）
摘要：采用超快时间分辨荧光光谱装置对光系统Ⅱ核心天线CP43和CP47进行了研究 ,并在 5 14.5nm激光激发下获得了它们的动力学荧光光谱。CP43和CP47的荧光光谱范围分别为 6 40～ 780nm和 6 30～ 775nm ,并且它们分别在约 6 80nm和 6 91nm处有最大峰 ,在这两个峰值处的荧光寿命分别约为 3.5 4ns和 3.2 2ns。通过理论计算认为在CP43和CP47中 ,叶绿素a的荧光发射效率分别约为 38.3%和 40 .6 %。讨论了类胡萝卜素到叶绿素a分子的能量传递 ,认为在CP43和CP47中 ,类胡萝卜素到叶绿素a分子的能量传递时间常数分别为 9.6× 10 11s-1和 1.3× 10 12s-1,能量传递效率分别为 47.5 %和 6 6 .5 % ,并且估计在这两种核心天线中 ,类胡萝卜素分子和叶绿素a分子的外周间距分别约为 0 .110nm和 0 .0 85nm。
Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on growth, yield and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C value) in ten cultivars of Glycine max (L.) Merr. were investigated under field conditions. Supplemental UV-B irradiation simulated a 20% stratospheric ozone depletion in Lanzhou on summer solstice day. UV-B radiation reduced biomass and yield in all soybean cultivars by 24.2% and 23.3%, respectively. However, the harvest index increased in 6 of ten soybean cultivars but reduced in 4 cultivars, the average increment was 1.39%. As compared with control, the decrease in δ13C value by UV-B was observed in most cultivars, except in cutlivar “8907-32” increase was found. There were also organ differences of stable carbon isotope composition under enhanced UV-B irradiation. δ13C of roots was the highest and of leaves was the lowest, δ13C value in stem was higher than in seeds. The results indicated that UV-B enhancement might change the metabolic process and the allocation of metabolite.
冯虎元1,2 陈拓2 徐世健1 安黎哲1,2 强维亚1 张满效1 王勋陵1*
关键词： 紫外线( 辐射；生长；产量；稳定碳同位素；大豆
Physiological indices related to the efficiency （ Fv/Fm ） of light energy conversion in PSⅡ and the peroxidation of membrane lipid were measured in leaves of Oryza sativa L. sp. indica rice cv. “Shanyou 63” and sp. japonica rice cv. “9516” under different temperatures and light intensities for 4 days. No changes in Fv/Fm and membrane lipid peroxidation product (MDA) were observed, so neither photoinhibition nor photooxidation happened in both rice cultivars under moderate temperature and medium light intensity. However, Fv/Fm dropped obviously with no change in MDA contents, and photoinhibition appeared in indica rice cv. “Shanyou 63” under medium temperature and strong light intensity. Furthermore, both photoinhibition and photooxidation were observed in two rice cultivars under chilling temperature and strong light intensity. Experiments with inhibitors under chilling temperature and strong light intensity showed that indica rice had a decrease in D1 protein content and SOD activity, and the extent of inhibition of xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching ( qN ) was larger, and a higher level of MDA was observed. The photoinhibition and photooxidation in indica rice were more distinct as compared with japonica rice. The authors suggested that PSⅡ light energy conversion efficiency ( Fv/Fm ) and membrane lipid peroxidation were the key indices for the detection of photooxidation.
（1. 江苏农业科学院农业生物遗传生理研究所，南京210014；2. 南通师范学院生命科学与技术系，南通226007）
摘要：不同温光条件(4 d)下,以粳稻(Oryza sativa L. sp. japonica)“9516”和籼稻(O. sativa L. sp. indica)“汕优63”为材料,测定了与PSⅡ光能转化效率 (Fv/Fm)和膜脂过氧化作用有关的生理指标,结果表明:适温、中等光强下两品种 Fv/Fm和膜脂过氧化作用的产物(MDA)无变化,未见光抑制和光氧化表现;适温、强光下籼稻“汕优63”的Fv/Fm明显下降,MDA未见变化, 有光抑制无光氧化表现;低温、强光下两品种有光抑制和光氧化表现。低温、强光下结合抑制剂实验证明,与粳稻相比 ,籼稻的D1蛋白量和SOD活性下降较多,叶黄素循环和非光化学猝灭(qN)受抑制程度较大,膜脂过氧化产物MDA含量较高,因而光抑制和光氧化现象较明显。实验提出:光能转化效率和膜脂过氧化表现是预测光氧化的关键指标。
关键词： D1 蛋白；psII光能转化效率(Fv/Fm)；叶黄素循环；非光化学猝灭（qN）；膜脂过氧化；水稻
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for heading date and plant height in rice ( Oryza sativa L.) using a recombinant inbred line population consisting of 241 lines. Totally 4 QTLs for heading date and 4 QTLs for plant height were detected in three years. The QTL with large effects located in the interval C1023-R1440 on chromosome 7 was simultaneously detected in three years for both traits. In order to distinguished the interval whether contained one QTL with pleiotropy effect or two close linked QTLs, a recombinant line RIL50, whose genetic background was high similar to Zhenshan 97 except the regions covered the major QTL from Minghui 63, was selected to cross with Zhenshan 97. A BC1F2 population from the cross, which could be regarded as near isogenic lines (NIL) with the targeted QTL (QTL-NIL), was used to collect heading date and plant height data. The frequency distribution of the two traits in the BC1F2 population was bimodal, and their segregation ratios were in accordance with the expected Mendelian inheritance ratios. Normally, the short plants flowered early in the population, the high plants with late heading date, but the relationships between the plant height and the heading date of 6 plants conflicted with the case. The above results clearly demonstrated that QTL could be treated as single Mendelian factor. Moreover, there are two close linked genes controlling the heading date and the plant height on chromosome 7, respectively.
邢永忠 徐才国 华金平 谈移芳 孙新立
摘要：利用241个重组自交系构成的群体,对水稻(Oryza sativa L.)株高和抽穗期进行基因定位。三年共定位到4个抽穗期的数量性状基因(QTLs)和4个株高QTLs,其中位于第7 染色体C1023-R1440区间的QTL 3年均可检测到,且效应大,同时影响株高和抽穗期。为了区分这个区间的QTL是一因多效还是紧密连锁的两个QTLs,从自交系群体里选取QTL区间来自明恢63,其他遗传背景与珍汕97高度相似的自交系RIL50,与珍汕97回交,获得含有363个单株的近等基因系BC1F2群体。考察株高和抽穗期,两个性状在群体里表现为双峰分布,它们的分离比符合期望的单基因孟德尔遗传分离比。BC1F2群体单株的株高和抽穗期基本表现为矮秆早抽穗,高秆迟抽穗,但是,6个单株表现相反的情况。以上结果证明,QTL能够作为孟德尔因子进行研究,在BC1F2群体里,株高和抽穗期是由单个基因控制的,第7染色体上是两个紧密连锁的基因分别控制株高和抽穗期。
Profilin has recently been identified as an actin-binding protein in higher plants. A cDNA clone (designated Repro ) encoding profilin gene was isolated from rapeseed ( Brassica napus L. cv. canadian Tween) using RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis showed 82% similarity to Zea mays L. ZmPro3 , 85% to Arabidopsis Ath PRF1, 82% to Nicotiana tabacum L. NTPRO, 81% to Oryza sativa L. profilin A. A new full-length cDNA was obtained by 5′-RACE and 3′-RACE techniques. Sequence analysis showed that the size of full-length cDNA is 672 bp which contains a major open reading frame of 134 amino acids, 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions and a long Poly (A) tail. Northern blot analysis showed that the profilin gene is a pollen and anther specific gene.
叶秋 李旭锋 徐莺 王劲林 娟陈放
摘要：profilin是高等植物中的一种与肌动蛋白结合的蛋白。采用RT-PCR技术克隆了油菜 (Bra ssica napus L. cv. canadian tween)花粉中的一个369 bp的cDNA片段。序列分析结果表明,该cDNA与已报道的其他植物的profilin基因具有较高核酸序列同源性。与玉米( Zea mays L.) 基因同源性为82％, 拟南芥(Arabidopsis)基因同源性为85％,水稻( Oryza sativa L.)基因同源性为81％,烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)基因同源性为8 2％。结合5′RACE和3′RACE 技术,获得了全长cDNA,其为672 bp。该cDNA包含一个开放密码框,5′未翻译区和一个带有Poly (A) 的3′区域。Northern 杂交结果显示它主要在花粉和花药中表达。
关键词： profilin 基因；3′RACE ；5′RACE;油菜花粉；RT-PCR 技术
Genetic diversity within and among six subpopulations of Larix decidua Mill. from two altitudinal transects of Swiss Alps was investigated using 6 enzyme systems coding for 8 loci. Globally, the mean proportion of polymorphic loci was 22.9%, the average number of alleles per locus was 1.3, and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.095. Only 5.8% of the genetic variation resided among populations. The mean genetic distance was 0.006. Several significant differences of gene frequencies were found between different age classes. Positive values of the species mean fixation index observed in this study suggested a considerable deficit of heterozygotes in the populations of L. decidua of Swiss Alps. At one of the sites (Arpette), the highest subpopulation in elevation gave the lowest level of genetic diversity (as evidenced by the lowest proportion of polymorphic loci and the lowest mean expected heterozygosity) and the largest value of genetic distance when compared to other subpopulations. The genetic differences between the highest subpopulation and the other ones suggest that the founder effect may be an important factor influencing genetic differentiation of L. decidua populations at Arpette transect.
赵桂仿1 Francois FELBER2 Philippe KUPFER2
（1. 西北大学生命科学学院，秦岭生物多样性研究中心，西安710069；2.Botanical lnstitute,Neuchatel Unixersiy,Emile-Arpand 11,CH-2007,Neycgatel,Switzerland)
摘要：应用等位酶分析技术,沿两个海拔梯度在瑞士阿尔卑斯山研究了欧洲落叶松(Larix decidua Mill.)居群内和居群间的遗传多态性。结果表明,多态性位点的比例为22.9%,平均每个位点的等位基因数为 1.3,平均期望杂合度为 0.095,遗传变异的5.8% 存在于居群之间,平均遗传距离为 0.006。几个有统计意义的基因频率差别在不同树龄类被发现。正的繁育系数值表明在瑞士阿尔卑斯山欧洲落叶松居群有相当的杂合体缺乏。在阿尔拜特(Arpette),海拔最高的亚居群与其他亚居群相比较显示最低的遗传多态性(如显示最低的多态性位点比例和最低的平均期望杂合度)和最大的遗传距离值。在最高亚居群和其他亚居群间的遗传差别暗示奠基者效应可能是影响这个定样场所欧洲落叶松居群遗传分化的主要因素。
Ordas plateau is a classical semi-dry sandland in China. The dry ecosystem responds sensitively to water-heat pattern of global change there. The distribution pattern and productivity of terrestrial ecosystem are greatly affected by global warming. Ecological adaptation strategies of seedlings of Caragana intermedia Kuang et H. C. Fu, Hedysarum mongolicum Turcz. and Artemisia ordosica Kraschen.，three dominant shrubs in Ordas plateau, were investigated in terms of morphological plasticities, biomass effects and photosynthetic and physiological characters, to the global warming by artificially controlling two temperature levels. The results show that the effects of temperature enhancement on growth and photosynthetic and physiological characters were obviously different among these three plant species. Temperature enhancement significantly increased tree height, leaf number, leaf area, biomass, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of C. intermedia and H. mongolicum seedlings, indicating that elevated temperature significantly affected the growth of these seedlings positively. Elevated temperature had almost no significant effect on the growth of A. ordosica seedlings. Their leaf number, leaf size, leaf area, biomass, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance did not increase obviously, but tree height and photosynthetic rate obviously increased with increasing temperature. Interspecific growth was significantly different among C. intermedia, H. mongolicum and A. ordosica seedlings. Except leaf size, values of the other seven characters of C. intermedia seedlings were greater than those of H. mongolicum and A. ordosica seedlings.
肖春旺1,2 张新时1 赵景柱2 吴钢2
摘要：鄂尔多斯高原是中国半干旱沙区典型沙地, 这里的干旱生态系统对全球的水热分配格局具有灵敏的响应。随着未来全球变暖,将给这里的陆地生态系统分布格局和生产力带来巨大影响。选择鄂尔多斯高原优势灌木柠条(Caragana intermedia Kuang et H. C. Fu)、杨柴 (Hedysarum mongolicum Turcz.)和油蒿(Artemisia ordosica Kraschen.)幼苗为研究对象,人为控制2种温度水平来探讨它们的幼苗形态可塑性、生物量效应和光合生理特征对增温条件下的生态适应策略。研究结果表明,增温处理对3种植物种类生长和光合生理特征的影响是不同的。增温对柠条和杨柴幼苗株高、叶数、叶面积、生物量、净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度等特征有显著的增大作用。表明增温对柠条和杨柴幼苗生长具有显著正效应。增温对油蒿幼苗生长总体影响不显著,叶数、叶大小、叶面积、生物量、蒸腾速率和气孔导度随着温度增高没有显著增大, 但树高和净光合速率随着温度增高而显著增大。柠条、杨柴和油蒿幼苗之间的种间生长差异显著,除叶大小外,其余7个特征值均为柠条幼苗显著高于杨柴和油蒿幼苗。
Abundant and well-preserved remains of noncalcareous algae and soft-bodied metazoans were collected from Middle Cambrian Kaili biota in Taijiang county, Guizhou Province, China. These remains provide further evidence for the wide geographic distribution of many Burgess Shale taxa. Among the algae, 5 genera (including two new genera) and 5 species are described. They are Marpolia spissa Walcott, Acinocricus stichus Conway Morris and Robison, Udotealga erecta Yang, Eosargassum sawata Yang, and Rhizophyton zhaoyuanlongii Yang. Contrasting the macroalgal fossil assemblage in the Kaili biota with one in the Burgess Shale biota, it is clear that similarity of the Kaili biota and the Burgess Shale biota is reflected by the same content of not only the soft-bodied metazoans, but also the noncalcareous algae.
杨瑞东1,2 毛家仁2 赵元龙2
摘要：贵州省台江县中寒武世凯里生物群含有丰富的非钙质藻类和具有软躯体后生动物化石 ,它为布尔吉斯页岩型生物群在世界广泛分布提供了更有力的证据。在生物群的宏观藻类中描述了 5个属 5个种 ,包括 2个新属。它们是Marpoliaspissa Walcott、AcinocricusstichusConwayMorrisandRobison、UdotealgaerectaYang、EosargassumsawataYang和RhizophytonzhaoyuanlongiiYang ,并且将凯里生物群中的宏观藻类化石组合与加拿大布尔吉斯页岩生物群中的宏观藻类进行了对比 ,发现两个生物群不仅具有相似的动物化石组成 ,而且宏观藻类化石组成也很相似。
Vegetation and climate changes of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene have been deduced based on pollen research from Wenwanggou and Xiaoshigou sections near Leijiahe village (ca 35°04′15″N，107°43′30″E). The two sections are quite famous of rich micromammalian fossils. Before ca. 6.5 Ma， open forest-grassland was distributed in the studied area indicating a temperate and humid condition at that time. In the period between ca.6.5 and 5.8 Ma BP (Late Miocene) predominance of Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia implies that desert or desert-grassland was developed in the area and the climate should be cold and dry. During the time interval from ca.5.8 to 3.4 Ma BP mixed conifer and broad leaved deciduous forest with a few subtropical tree taxa had replaced the arid desert vegetation indicating a warm and humid climate. The climate aridity event of Late Miocene can be correlated with the global climatic event.
摘要：通过甘肃灵台雷家河地区(约35°04′15″N,107°43′30″E) 富含小哺乳动物化石文王沟和小石沟剖面的化石孢粉研究,阐述了该区晚中新世—早上新世(6.5～3.4 Ma BP)的植被发展历史。约6.5 Ma前为疏林草原,气候温湿。约6.5～5.8 Ma BP, 为以藜(Chenopalaceae )和蒿(Artemisia)占绝对优势的荒漠或荒漠草原植被,反映气候冷干。5.8～3 .4 Ma BP,针阔叶林分布本区,以松(Pinus)和桦(Betula)为优势并有山核桃( Carya)、油杉(Keteleeria)、铁杉(Tsuga)等少量亚热带植物存在,此时期气候暖湿。本区中新世末期气候事件与全球冷干气候事件一致。
The bioassay was directed to the fractionation of the methanol extract of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe leading to the isolation of a new antioxidant cyclic diarylheptanoid. The structure of the new compoundwas established as 1,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-phenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl) heptane (1) on the basis of MS, 1D and 2D-NMR experiments.
何文珊1,5 魏孝义2 李琳3 李炎4 郭祀远3 郭宝江5
（1. 暨南大学医学院，广州510630；2. 中国科学院华南植物研究所，广州510650;3. 华南理工大学轻化工研究所，广州510640; 4暨南大学食品科技研究中心，广州510630；
摘要：通过活性跟踪,从生姜(Zingiber officinale Roscoe)中分离得到一个新的具抗氧化作用的二苯基环氧庚烷类成分,由其质谱、1D和2D-NMR等光谱数据,鉴定其结构为1,5-环氧-3-羟基-1-(3,4-二羟基-5-甲氧基苯基)-7-(3,4-二羟基苯基)庚烷 (1)。
关键词： 生姜；二苯基环氧庚烷；1，5环氧-3-羟基-1- （3，4-二羟基-5-甲氧基苯基）-7- （3，4-二羟基苯基）庚烷；抗氧
From the ethanol extract of the roots of Brachystemma calycinum D.Don, a Chinese folk herb, four new minor cyclic peptides namely brachystemin A, B, C and D (1-4) have been isolated. Their structures were established as cyclo (Pro¹-Phe-Leu-Ala¹-Thr-Pro²-Ala²-Gly)(1)、cyclo(Pro¹-Ala-Phe-Trp-Asp-Pro²-Leu-Gly)(2)、cyclo (Pro¹-Ile-Gly-Pro²-Val-Ala¹-Ala²-Tyr) (3) and cyclo (Pro-OMet-Trp-Ile-Gly-Ala-Leu-Asp) (T4) respectively by means of extensive spectral methods.
程永现 周俊* 谭宁华
摘要：从中国民间草药短瓣花(Brachystemma calycinum D.Don)干燥根的乙醇提取物中分离得到4个新的微量环八肽,命名为短瓣花环肽A、B、C和D。经光谱分析鉴定,它们的结构分别为cyclo (Pro1-Phe-Leu-Ala1-Thr-Pro2-Ala2-Gly) (1)、cyclo (Pr o1-Ala-Phe-Trp-Asp-Pro2-Leu-Gly) (2)、cyclo (Pro1-Ile-Gly-Pro 2-Val-Ala1-Ala2-Tyr) (3)和cyclo (Pro-OMet-Trp-Ile-Gly-Ala-Leu- Asp) (4)。
The treatment of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings with CaCl2 increased mRNA levels of hsp26 gene at 37 ℃ for 1 h, while that with Ca2+ chelator EGTA decreased the expression of the hsp26 gene. The expression of the wheat calmodulin gene CaM1-2 is rapidly up-regulated in wheat seedlings by heat shock at 37 ℃. The heat-induced up-regulation of CaM1-2 occurred earlier than that of the hsp26 gene did. Calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamid (W7) inhibited the expression of the hsp26 gene in wheat seedlings at 37 ℃ for 1 h. These results implied that the calcium-calmodulin is probably involved in the signal transduction of the hsp26 gene expression induced by heat shock.
刘宏涛1,2 赵和1 李冰1,2 孙大业2 周人纲1*
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