Author: Zai-Quan CHENG, Xing-Qi HUANG, Yi-Zheng ZHANG, Jun QIAN, Ming-Zhi YANG, Cheng-Jun WU and Jia-Fu LIU
J Integr Plant Biol 2005, 47 (10): 1260-1270.
In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O. rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (± SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1.1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis III originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%–50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%–209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%–17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%–158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits, especially high protein and ideal amylose content, of Yunnan wild rice species may be useful in improving the nutritional value of rice. This is the first report regarding the amino acid, mineral element, protein and amylose content of husked seeds of some Yunnan wild rice species that have important genetic characteristics for rice quality and nutritional value.