J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2009, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (4): 423-432.DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00812.x

• Molecular Ecology and Evolution • Previous Articles    

The Characterization and Geographical Distribution of the Genes Responsible for Vernalization Requirement in Chinese Bread Wheat

Qing-Ming Sun1,2, Rong-Hua Zhou2, Li-Feng Gao2, Guang-Yao Zhao2 and Ji-Zeng Jia2*   

  1. 1College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China
    2Department of Crop Molecular Biology, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2008-06-04 Accepted:2008-12-01 Published:2009-03-31
  • About author:*Author for correspondence Tel: +86 10 8210 5831; E-mail: jzjia@mail.caas.net.cn


The frequency and distribution of the major vernalization requirement genes and their effects on growth habits were studied. Of the 551 bread wheat genotypes tested, seven allelic combinations of the three Vrn-1 genes were found to be responsible for the spring habit, three for the facultative habit and one for the winter habit. The three Vrn-1 genes behaved additively with the dominant allele of Vrn-A1 exerting the strongest effect. The allele combinations of the facultative genotypes and the discovery of spring genotypes with “winter” allele of Vrn-1 implied the presence of as yet unidentified alleles/genes for vernalization response. The dominant alleles of the three Vrn-1 genes were found in all ten ecological regions where wheat is cultivated in China, with Vrn-D1 as the most common allele in nine and Vrn-A1 in one. The combination of vrn-A1vrn- B1Vrn-D1 was the predominant genotype in seven of the regions. Compared with landraces, improved varieties contain a higher proportion of the spring type. This was attributed by a higher frequency of the dominant Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B1 alleles in the latter. Correlations between Vrn-1 allelic constitutions and heading date, spike length, plant type as well as cold tolerance were established.

Sun QM, Zhou RH, Gao LF, Zhao GY, Jia JZ (2009) The characterization and geographical distribution of the genes responsible for vernalization requirement in Chinese bread wheat. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(4), 423–432.

Key words: common wheat, genotyping, geographical distribution, vernalization.

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