J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2014, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (6): 518-526.DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12185

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Homeodomain leucine-zipper proteins and their role in synchronizing growth and development with the environment

Ronny Brandt1,2, Marc Cabedo1, Yakun Xie1 and Stephan Wenkel1*   

  1. 1Center for Plant Molecular Biology, University of Tübingen, Germany
    2Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, Germany


The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) genome encodes for four distinct classes of homeodomain leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors (HD-ZIPI to HD-ZIPIV), which are all organized in multi-gene families. HD-ZIP transcription factors act as sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that are able to control the expression level of target genes. While HD-ZIPI and HD-ZIPII proteins are mainly associated with environmental responses, HD-ZIPIII and HD-ZIPIV are primarily known to act as patterning factors. Recent studies have challenged this view. It appears that several of the different HD-ZIP families interact genetically to align both morphogenesis and environmental responses, most likely by modulating phytohormone-signaling networks.


Brandt R, Cabedo M, Xie Y, Wenkel S (2014) Homeodomain leucine‐zipper proteins and their role in synchronizing growth and development with the environment. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 518–526. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12185

Key words: Transcription factors, homeodomain, leucine zipper, auxin, light signaling, water stress, abscisic acid, leaf development

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