J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2000, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 341-352.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Cytological Mechanism of Cytoplasmic Inheritance in Pinus tabulaeformis: II. Transmission of Male and Female Organelles During Fertilization and Proembryo Development

GUO Feng-Li, HU Shi-Yi, XU Shi-Xiong (S.Y. Zee), YUAN Zong-Fei   

Abstract:

In an earlier report the ultrastructure and nucleoid organelles of male gamete in Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. have been described. Presently, the ultrastructure of the cytoplasm of the egg cell and pollen tube—immediately before fertilization and during cytoplasmic transmission of male gametophyte—has been described for the same species. The fate of parental plastids and mitochondria in the proembryo has also been followed. The mature egg cell contains a large amount of mitochondria, but seems to lack normal plastids. Most plastids have transformed into large inclusions. Apart from the large inclusions, there are abundant small inclusions and other organelles in the egg cell. During fertilization, pollen tube penetrates into the egg cell at the micropylar end and thereafter the contents are released. Plastid and mitochondrion of male origin are lacking near the fusing sperm-egg nuclei. The second sperm nucleus—not involved in karyogamy—remains at a site near the receptive vacuole. This nucleus is surrounded by large amount of male cytoplasm containing mixed organelles from the sperm cell, tube cell, and egg cell. At the free nuclear proembryo stage, organelles of male and female origin are visible in the perinucleus-cytoplasmic zone. Most of the mitochondria have the same morphological features as those in the egg cell. Some of the mitochondria appear to have originated from the sperm and tube cells. Plastids are most likely of male gametophyte origin because they have similar appearance as those of the sperm and tube cell. Large inclusions in the egg cell become vacuole-like. Paternal plastids have been incorporated into the neocytoplasm of the proembryo. In the cellular proembryo, maternal mitochondria are more abundant. Plastids resembling those of the sperm and tube cell are still present. These cytological results clearly show that in P. tabulaeformis , plastids are inherited paternally and mitochondria bipaternally. The cytological mechanism of plastid and mitochondrion inheritance in gymnosperm is discussed.

油松细胞质遗传的细胞学机理:II.雄性和雌性细胞器在受精和原胚时期的传递
国凤利1 胡适宜2*徐是雄3 袁宗飞2

(1. 中国农业大学农业部植物生理生化重点开放实验室,北京1000094;
2. 北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871;3.  香港大学植物学系,香港薄扶林道)

摘要:在电镜下观察油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)传粉后的胚珠临近受精时的花粉管和卵细胞的细胞质、受精时雄配子体细胞质的传递、游离核和细胞原胚发育时期质体和线粒体的传递。在成熟卵细胞中含许多线粒体,缺少正常结构的质体,它们转变为大内含体。此外,卵细胞还有丰富的小内含体和其他一些细胞器。花粉管在卵细胞的珠孔端释放其内含物。精核与卵核融合时,核周围未见来自精细胞的质体和线粒体。不参与融合的精核停留在接受液泡旁,在其周围有大量的雄性细胞质,其中混合有精细胞、管细胞和卵细胞的细胞器。在游离核原胚时期,核周区的细胞质中可见雄性与雌性亲本的细胞器相混合;其中许多线粒体与原来卵细胞中的线粒体有相同的形态,也有一些线粒体看来是来自精细胞和管细胞;质体是由雄配子体传递,形态与精细胞的或花粉管中的质体相似。卵细胞中变异的质体(即大内含体)在原胚发育时期变为液泡状,而雄性质体参加到新细胞质中。在原胚细胞中,线粒体大多数为母本来源,质体则表现为精细胞或管细胞的质体形态。该研究确定了油松具父系质体和双亲线粒体遗传的细胞学基础。对裸子植物线粒体和质体遗传的机理从细胞学的角度进行了分析。
关键词: 裸子植物;细胞质遗传;父系质体遗传;母系线粒体遗传;超微结构;油松

Key words: gymnosperms, cytoplasmic inheritance, paternal plastid inheritance, maternal mitochondrion inheritance, ultrastructure, Pinus tabulaeformis

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