J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2009, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (5): 456-465.DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00824.x

• Cell and Developmental Biology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Histological and Ultrastructural Observation Reveals Significant Cellular Differences between Agrobacterium Transformed Embryogenic and Non-embryogenic Calli of Cotton

Hai-Hong Shang, Chuan-Liang Liu, Chao-Jun Zhang, Feng-Lian Li, Wei-Dong Hong and Fu-Guang Li*   

  1. Key Laboratory of Cotton Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Chinese Cotton Research Institute, Chinese Agricultural Academy of Sciences, Anyang 455004, China
  • Received:2009-01-19 Accepted:2009-02-20 Published:2009-04-28
  • About author: *Author for correspondence Tel: +86 372 256 2204; Fax: +86 372 256 2256; E-mail: lifug@cricaas.com.cn


Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a fibrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains. In contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

Shang HH, Liu CL, Zhang CJ, Li FL, Hong WD, Li FG (2009). Histological and ultrastructural observation reveals significant cellular differences between Agrobacterium transformed embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of cotton. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 456–465.

Key words: cell organization pattern, chloroplasts, embryogenic callus, Gossypium hirsutum, histological structure, transformation, ultrastructure.

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