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J Integr Plant Biol, 1995, 37 (12): -, Research Article
Origin of Megagametophytes with Supernumerary Egg Cells Occurring in Oryza sativa
Liu Yong-sheng, Sun Jing-san, Liu Tai-qing, Pan Sheng-fa and Li Xian-yong
Cytoembryological observations were attempted to reveal the cytological origin of megagametophyte with supernumerary egg cells. It was shown that all ovules underwent a normal megasporogenesis. The meiosis of megasporocyte consisted of two successive divisions, which gave rise to four haploid megaspores. It was the chalazal spore that developed to form the megagametophyte while the three micropylar megaspores degenerated quickly. After first mitosis in the functional megaspore the two nuclei were separated to the micropylar and chalazal poles by a large central vacuole, meanwhile a differential enlargement of the two-nucleate embryo sac was visualized. The micropylar side enlarged quickly and in contrast, the chalazal side remains almost unchanged. Immediately afterward, the second mitosis took place forming four-nucleate embryo sac. During the second mitosis, nucleus located in the narrow area of chalazal side divided transversely, with its upper sister nucleus migrating to the central or micropylar part of the embryo sac, while the nucleus in the micropylar side divided at an angle of about 45° against the micropylar-chalazal axis. Through the third mitosis, two patterns of nuclear arrangement deviating from polygonum were observed. (i) One nuclear distribution pattern was two, two, four respectively in chalazal, central and micropylar parts. And during maturation the four micropylar nuclei differentiated as egg apparatus consisting of two egg cells and two synergids. The two central nuclei, which presumably suppressed the movement of nucleus toward centre part from both micropylar and chalazal sides developed into central cell with two polar nuclei. And the two chalazal nuclei organized into antipodal cells. Rarely indeed, one nucleus of either chalazal or micropyle side did migrate to join the formation of central cell. (ii) The other nuclei arrangement pattern was two and six respectively positioned in chalazal and micropylar sides. During maturation, five micropylar nuclei differentiated into egg apparatus consisted of three egg cells and two synergids. The sixth one migrated to form the upper polar nucleus. The lower nucleus of the chalazal side developed into antipodal cell which divided quickly, and the upper nucleus became the lower polar nucleus.
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