Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Jiang Gui-zhen, Yu Yan-li, Kuang Ting-yun
J Integr Plant Biol 1991, 33 (3): -.
The present paper reports that the development ultrastructural observations of chloroplasts from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) embryo buds under invisible light. Embryo bud of sacred lotus is enclosed by three layers of thick integument (pericap, seed coat and thick fleshy cotyledons). During the period of the formation of embryo bud, it remained in dark condition, but turned from pale yellow to bluish-green. It was noteworthy that chloroplasts of the embryo bud had well developed giant grana under invisible light. Their developmental pathway in sacred lotus, however, was different from those of other higher plants grown under sunlight, intermittent light, or even in dark conditions (Fig. 1). The chloroplast development of embryo buds in Sacred lotus seeds in invisible light underwent only in the following three stages: (1) In the first stage the development was similar to that from other higher plants, the inner envelope membranes of the proplastids were invaginating. (2) In the second stage, a proplastid centre composed of prolamellar bodies (PLB)with semicrystalline structure was formed, and was accompanied by one or two huge starch grains in almost each proplastid. In the meantime, prothylakoid membranes extended parallelly from the plastid centre in three forms: (a) One plastid centre extending parallelly prothylakoid membranes from itself in one direction; (b) The same to (a), but extending in two directions; (c) Two plastid centres extending parallelly prothylakoid membranes between the centres. (3) In the third stage, grana and stroma thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts were formed. It is to be noted that most of chloroplasts had only one or two giant grana which often extended across the entire chloroplast body, and the length of the grana thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts from embryo bud in Sacred lotus is 3 to 5 times as many as that in other higher plants. However, their stromatic thylakoid membranes were rather rare and very short. The giant grana were squeezed to the margin of the chloroplast envelope by one or two huge starch grains.