Author: Institute of Crop Science, Peking Academy of Agriculture
J Integr Plant Biol 1975, 17 (2): -.
Deep plowing and adding of organic fertilizers to improve soil fertility are the foundations of high and stable yield for wheat. In a highly fertilized soil, seeds may be sown at a reasonably early date. In so doing a good growth of individual plants, a uniform population with a good canopy, and a quite high rate of effective tillers can be expected. In our experiments we have adopted the following cultural routine: (a) A good choice of high yielding variety (our choice is A. U. 139). (b) A reasonable early date of sowing. (c) A sowing of 100,000 seedlings per mu (666.6 m2). (d) A total of 700,000 tillers per mu before over-wintering (about 1.2 times the number of heads per mu) and more than 1,200,000 tillers per mu after wintering (about twice the number of heads per mu).(e) Finally, a total of 550,000–600,000 heads per mu when ripe. (There will be more than 26 grains per head, a 1,000 grains will weigh 36 g or higher, and the yield will be more than 500 kg per mu). In the district of Peking where winter wheat is usually sown in the autumn, the most important factor for high productivity is the rational control of spring tillering so as to achieve a good canopy. When wheat land is highly fertilized and its moisture condition is good, the final watering (during the stage of grain filling) is applied about 20 days prior to maturity. A reasonable control of soil fertility (mainly available soil N) by proper management of irrigation is a profitable means to regulate the N-C metabolism to attain a higher weight of 1,000 grains.