Author: Hu Shi-yi and Zhu Cheng
J Integr Plant Biol 1979, 21 (1): -.
Studies on the fusion of male and female nuclei in fertilization of Helianthus an- nuus L., Triticum aestivan L., Gossypium hisutum L., Hosta caerulea Tratt., and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. were made in the present work. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The essential process of the fusion of male and female nuclei during syngamy in four species of angiosperms studied may' be generalized as follows: (1) the male nucleus made contact with the female one, (2) followed by the fusion of nuclear membranes between the male and female nuclei. (3) then the despiralization of male spireme happened and male nucleolus made its appearance inside of the fertilized egg nucleus (4) the male chromatin dispersed and make its appearance indistinguishable from that of the female chromatin, (5) the male and female nucleoli fused together to form a larger nucleolus as a sign of completion of the fusion of the two nuclei. In the first mitotic division of the zygote there was only one common mitotic spindle. 2. The essential process of the fusion of egg and sperm nuclei during syngamy in a gymnosperm-Pinus tabulaeformis could also be outlined as follows: (1) the sperm nucleus made contact with the egg nucleue, (2) the fusion of nuclear membranes happened between the male and female nuclei, (3) the male and female ehromatins condensed to form two separate groups of chromatin threads together with the very apparent apperance of the male and female nucleoli at this stage, (4) the male and female chromosomes grouped respectively in their own spindles while both nucleoli disappeared, (5) then the two spindles fused together and all the chromosomes arranged to form a common equatorial plate, (6) finally two daugter nuclei resulted from the mitotic division. 3. Based on the facts that there were two different patterns of the fusion of male and female nuclei in fertilization discribed, all of these accounts are in general accord with the condition usually described that there are two types of fertilization, the pre- mitotic and postmitotie syngamy in higher plants. The type of angiosperm fertilization and the mechanism of promoting the zygote to divide after fertilization are discussed, and the nuclear fusion in sexual reproduction has been compared with that of somatic cell hybridization.