Protein modification

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    Autophagy in plants: Physiological roles and post‐translational regulation
    Hua Qi, Fan-Nv Xia and Shi Xiao
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (1): 161-179.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12941
    Abstract (Browse 377)  |   Save
    In eukaryotes, autophagy helps maintain cellular homeostasis by degrading and recycling cytoplasmic materials via a tightly regulated pathway. Over the past few decades, significant progress has been made towards understanding the physiological functions and molecular regulation of autophagy in plant cells. Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is essential for plant responses to several developmental and environmental cues, functioning in diverse processes such as senescence, male fertility, root meristem maintenance, responses to nutrient starvation, and biotic and abiotic stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that, similar to nonplant systems, the modulation of core proteins in the plant autophagy machinery by posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, lipidation, S‐sulfhydration, S‐nitrosylation, and acetylation is widely involved in the initiation and progression of autophagy. Here, we provide an overview of the physiological roles and posttranslational regulation of autophagy in plants.
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    A WRKY transcription factor confers aluminum tolerance via regulation of cell wall modifying genes
    Chun Xiao Li, Jing Ying Yan, Jiang Yuan Ren, Li Sun, Chen Xu, Gui Xin Li, Zhong Jie Ding and Shao Jian Zheng
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (8): 1176-1192.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12888
    Abstract (Browse 388)  |   Save

    Modification of cell wall properties has been considered as one of the determinants that confer aluminum (Al) tolerance in plants, while how cell wall modifying processes are regulated remains elusive. Here, we present a WRKY transcription factor WRKY47 involved in Al tolerance and root growth. Lack of WRKY47 significantly reduces, while overexpression of it increases Al tolerance. We show that lack of WRKY47 substantially affects subcellular Al distribution in the root, with Al content decreased in apoplast and increased in symplast, which is attributed to the reduced cell wall Al‐binding capacity conferred by the decreased content of hemicellulose I in the wrky47‐1 mutant. Based on microarray, real time‐quantitative polymerase chain reaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further show that WRKY47 directly regulates the expression of EXTENSIN‐LIKE PROTEIN (ELP ) and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE‐HYDROLASES17 (XTH17 ) responsible for cell wall modification. Increasing the expression of ELP and XTH17 rescued Al tolerance as well as root growth in wrky47‐1 mutant. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY47 is required for root growth under both normal and Al stress conditions via direct regulation of cell wall modification genes, and that the balance of Al distribution between root apoplast and symplast conferred by WRKY47 is important for Al tolerance.

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    The plant N-degron pathways of ubiquitin‐mediated proteolysis
    Michael John Holdsworth, Jorge Vicente, Gunjan Sharma, Mohamad Abbas and Agata Zubrycka
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (1): 70-89.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12882
    Abstract (Browse 345)  |   Save

    The amino‐terminal residue of a protein (or amino‐terminus of a peptide following protease cleavage) can be an important determinant of its stability, through the Ubiquitin Proteasome System associated N‐degron pathways. Plants contain a unique combination of N‐degron pathways (previously called the N‐end rule pathways) E3 ligases, PROTEOLYSIS (PRT)6 and PRT1, recognizing non‐overlapping sets of amino‐terminal residues, and others remain to be identified. Although only very few substrates of PRT1 or PRT6 have been identified, substrates of the oxygen and nitric oxide sensing branch of the PRT6 N‐degron pathway include key nuclear‐located transcription factors (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR VIIs and LITTLE ZIPPER 2) and the histone‐modifying Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 component VERNALIZATION 2. In response to reduced oxygen or nitric oxide levels (and other mechanisms that reduce pathway activity) these stabilized substrates regulate diverse aspects of growth and development, including response to flooding, salinity, vernalization (cold‐induced flowering) and shoot apical meristem function. The N‐degron pathways show great promise for use in the improvement of crop performance and for biotechnological applications. Upstream proteases, components of the different pathways and associated substrates still remain to be identified and characterized to fully appreciate how regulation of protein stability through the amino‐terminal residue impacts plant biology.

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    Protein S-Nitrosylation in plants: Current progresses and challenges
    Jian Feng, Lichao Chen and Jianru Zuo
    J Integr Plant Biol 2019, 61 (12): 1206-1223.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12780
    Abstract (Browse 291)  |   Save
    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule regulating diverse biological processes in all living organisms. A major physiological function of NO is executed via protein S‐nitrosylation, a redox‐based posttranslational modification by covalently adding a NO molecule to a reactive cysteine thiol of a target protein. S‐nitrosylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism modulating multiple aspects of cellular signaling. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in functional characterization of S‐nitrosylated proteins in plants. Emerging evidence indicates that protein S‐nitrosylation is ubiquitously involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Here we review current understanding on the regulatory mechanisms of protein S‐nitrosylation in various biological processes in plants and highlight key challenges in this field.
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    Translating auxin responses into ovules, seeds and yield: Insight from Arabidopsis and the cereals
    Neil J Shirley, Matthew K. Aubert, Laura G. Wilkinson, Dayton C. Bird, Jorge Lora, Xiujuan Yang and Matthew R. Tucker
    J Integr Plant Biol 2019, 61 (3): 310-336.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12747
    Abstract (Browse 198)  |   Save
    Grain production in cereal crops depends on the stable formation of male and female gametes in the flower. In most angiosperms, the female gamete is produced from a germline located deep within the ovary, protected by several layers of maternal tissue, including the ovary wall, ovule integuments and nucellus. In the field, germline formation and floret fertility are major determinants of yield potential, contributing to traits such as seed number, weight and size. As such, stimuli affecting the timing and duration of reproductive phases, as well as the viability, size and number of cells within reproductive organs can significantly impact yield. One key stimulant is the phytohormone auxin, which influences growth and morphogenesis of female tissues during gynoecium development, gametophyte formation, and endosperm cellularization. In this review we consider the role of the auxin signaling pathway during ovule and seed development, first in the context of Arabidopsis and then in the cereals. We summarize the gene families involved and highlight distinct expression patterns that suggest a range of roles in reproductive cell specification and fate. This is discussed in terms of seed production and how targeted modification of different tissues might facilitate improvements.
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    Plant peroxisomes at the crossroad of NO and H2O2 metabolism
    Francisco J Corpas, Luis A. del Río and José M Palma
    J Integr Plant Biol 2019, 61 (7): 803-816.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12772
    Abstract (Browse 334)  |   Save
    Plant peroxisomes are subcellular compartments involved in many biochemical pathways during the life cycle of a plant but also in the mechanism of response against adverse environmental conditions. These organelles have an active nitro-oxidative metabolism under physiological conditions but this could be exacerbated under stress situations. Furthermore, peroxisomes have the capacity to proliferate and also undergo biochemical adaptations depending on the surrounding cellular status. An important characteristic of peroxisomes is that they have a dynamic metabolism of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS) which generates two key molecules, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These molecules can exert signaling functions by means of post-translational modifications that affect the functionality of target molecules like proteins, peptides or fatty acids. This review provides an overview of the endogenous metabolism of ROS and RNS in peroxisomes with special emphasis on polyamine and uric acid metabolism as well as the possibility that these organelles could be a source of signal molecules involved in the functional interconnection with other subcellular compartments.
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    Hydrogen sulfide: A novel component in Arabidopsis peroxisomes which triggers catalase inhibition
    Francisco J. Corpas, Juan B. Barroso, Salvador González-Gordo, María A. Muñoz-Vargas and José M. Palma
    J Integr Plant Biol 2019, 61 (7): 871-883.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12779
    Abstract (Browse 391)  |   Save
    Plant peroxisomes have the capacity to generate different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), such as H2O2, superoxide radical (O2· ), nitric oxide and peroxynitrite (ONOO). These organelles have an active nitro-oxidative metabolism which can be exacerbated by adverse stress conditions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a new signaling gasotransmitter which can mediate the posttranslational modification (PTM) persulfidation. We used Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic seedlings expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) fused to a canonical peroxisome targeting signal 1 (PTS1) to visualize peroxisomes in living cells, as well as a specific fluorescent probe which showed that peroxisomes contain H2S. H2S was also detected in chloroplasts under glyphosate-induced oxidative stress conditions. Peroxisomal enzyme activities, including catalase, photorespiratory H2O2-generating glycolate oxidase (GOX) and hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR), were assayed in vitro with a H2S donor. In line with the persulfidation of this enzyme, catalase activity declined significantly in the presence of the H2S donor. To corroborate the inhibitory effect of H2S on catalase activity, we also assayed pure catalase from bovine liver and pepper fruit-enriched samples, in which catalase activity was inhibited. Taken together, these data provide evidence of the presence of H2S in plant peroxisomes which appears to regulate catalase activity and, consequently, the peroxisomal H2O2 metabolism.
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