The seed-specific phaseolin promoter (Ph/P) was fused to an ipt gene, then was cloned to a plant expression vector containing a gus gene driven by a 35S promoter. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants were transformed through pollen tube pathway methods. After seed germination, histochemical staining of the roots demonstrated that 32 GUS positive plants were obtained and three of which contained the chimeric Ph/P-ipt transgene as confirmed by PCR analysis. An immunosorbent assay showed that two of the three transgenic cotton lines contained higher levels of zeatin equivalents in seeds than the control. Seedling development of these two transgenic lines differed from the control in a reduction of the shoot growth, showing a stunted phenotype as expected, but a surprisingly developed root system with a 3-4 fold fast-growing lateral roots. In addition, fibers (seed-hairs) of the two transgenic cotton lines were considerably shorter than those of the control. These results indicate that genetic engineering may be used to manipulate the development of cotton plants, particularly cotton fibers.
The genetic diversity and population structure of Potentilla fragarioides var. sprengeliana(Rosaceae) in Korea were investigated using genetic variation at 22 allozyme loci. The percent of polymorphic loci within the enzymes was 59.1%. The genetic diversity at the species level and at the population level was high (Hes=0.210; Hep=0.199, respectively), whereas the extent of the population divergence was relatively low (GST=0.074). FIS, a measure of the deviation from random mating within the 19 populations, was 0.331. An indirect estimate of the number of migrants per generation (Nm=3.15) indicates that gene flow is high among Korean populations of the species. In addition, analysis of fixation indices revealed a slight heterozygote deficiency in some populations and at some loci. The mean genetic identity between populations was 0.985. It is highly probable that the trend of genetic uniformity in a relatively homogeneous habitat is thought to be operated among Korean populations of P. fragarioides var.sprengeliana.
The paper reviewed the 13C-NMR features of natural taxane diterpenoids according to their carbon-skeleton types. In the 13C-NMR it is easy to distinguish the 6/8/6 and 5/7/6 membered rings by observation of the 13C-NMR data of C-1 and C-15. The remarkable differences of the resonance of C -13 and C-12 were found. In addition, based on various chemical environments man y obscured chemical shifts of carbons can be distinguished, such as the oxygenat ed tertiary carbons of C-2, C-5, C-7, C-9 and C-13, and sometimes between C-9 an d C-10, as well as between aliphatic quaternary carbons of C-8 and C-15, and sec ondary carbons of C-6 and C-14. All the above-mentioned characteristics are helpful for structural elucidation and assignments of the carbon signals of taxoids.
To know more about the site of O2 production in thylakoids, the Fv/Fm ratio was measured in parallel with the oxygen free-radical production detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) using Tiron as a probe in the isolated thylakoids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). As the light intensity was strong enough to induce photoinhibition leading to reduction in the Fv/Fm ratio, the intensity of the TH·signal representing the superoxide production was enhanced. The TH·signal was also stimulated by 3-(3,4-dichloropheneyl)-1,1-dimethylurea but was suppressed by exogenous scavengers or by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol.Therefore, the superoxide production is closely related to photoinhibition in PSⅡ. The novel results may further promote research on the mechanism of photoinhibition and on the structure and function of PSⅡ as well.
摘要：为了更多地了解超氧在叶绿体中产生的部位 ,在测定欧洲赤松 (Pinussylvestris L .)针叶离体叶绿体的Fv/Fm比值的同时 ,以Tiron为探针 ,用电子自旋共振 (ESR)技术平行检测其氧自由基的产生。当光强达到足以引起光抑制并使Fv/Fm 比值下降时 ,指示超氧产生的TH·半醌自由基的信号强度也随之增加。这一信号的强度也可被二氯苯基二甲基脲 (DCMU)所增强 ,但被外源的自由基清除剂或二氯酚靛酚 (DCIP)所抑制。这表明超氧的产生和PSⅡ的光抑制密切相关。这些新的结果将可能促进对光合光抑制的机制和PSⅡ结构和功能的研究。
A twinovary mutant derived from the doubled haploid (DH) progeny of a cross,02428/Gui 630, was presumably related to the transposition of some transposable elements. Up to date, all reported the active transposable elements in rice (Oryza sativaL.) are copia like retrotransposons. In the present study, the reverse transcriptase domains of copia like retrotransposons were amplified from the total DNA isolted from the mutant plants with the degenerated oligonucleotide primers for the domain. Three cloned insert DNAs, R331, R334 and R338, representing putative different copialike retrotransposons were screened out. Two of them displayed high polymorphism between “Zhaiyeqing 8” and “Jingxi 17”. Nine of the polymorphic bands were mapped on seven rice chromosomes. Sequencing analysis revealed that stop codons frequently occur in the sequence of R338, while both R331 and R334 contain a continuous coding region for 81 putative amino acid residues. No significant variation in hybridization patterns was found between indica and japonica rice or among 26 varieties of indica rice when R33 1 was used as a probe. Nevertheless, when R33 4 was used as a probe, high polymorphisms were detected both between indica and japonica rice and among 26 indica varieties, implying that this element might still be active in rice genomes.
王文明1 邢少辰1，2 郑先武1 赵显峰1朱立煌1*
摘要：以水稻双子房突变体的总DNA为模板 ,用简并引物扩增类copia逆转座子的逆转录酶区域。从PCR产物中分离到代表 3个不同的类copia逆转座子的片段 ,其中两个在水稻 (OryzasativaL .)品种“窄叶青 8号”和“京系 17”间产生的多态性杂交带分别定位于水稻 7条染色体的 9个位点。R33 8含大量的终止码 ,R33 1及R33 4为连续的编码区 ,推测的氨基酸序列含 81个氨基酸残基。R33 1的拷贝数变化不明显 ,R33 4在籼粳亚种间及 2 6个籼稻品种间具有广泛的多态性 ,暗示了在籼粳分化后晚近的转座事件。这一结果对进一步分离水稻中有活性的转座因子及建立克隆和探测水稻基因功能的转座子诱变系统具有促进作用
A bidirectional promoter of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was obtained from the total of DNA CLCuV infected tomato leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and the amplified DNA fragment was cloned into the vector. DNA sequences analysis and homology comparison with the promotor of four kinds of isolates recently found indicated that the cloned promoter fragment composed of 436 bp was 99.32% homolog was up to in nucleotides with that of the isolates. Transient expression vectors were constructed by fusing the promoter fragment with gus reporter gene and nopaline terminator in different orientation. These constructs were delivered into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf cells for transient expression by particle bombardment. The results indicated that complementary sense promoter was a strong promoter with high activity in leaf mesophyll and vascular tissues, but virion sense promoter was weaker. The experiments suggested that isolated bidirectional promoter, as a novel strong promoter, could be used for dicots and especially cotton genetic transformation.
谢迎秋1 朱祯 1* 吴茜1 徐鸿林1 孟蒙1 刘玉乐2
（1。 中国科学院遗传研究所，北京100101；2。 中国科学院微生物研究所，北京00080）
摘要： 以棉花曲叶病毒 (CLCuV)侵染的番茄叶片组织总DNA为模板 ,通过PCR反应扩增CLCuV双向启动子片段并插入克隆载体。序列分析和同源性比较表明 ,克隆的启动子长 436bp ,与目前发现的 4类CLCuV分离物的启动子序列的同源性最高为 99.32 %。将启动子片段分别以不同方向与gus报告基因和nos终止子融合 ,构建了瞬时表达载体。通过基因枪法将质粒载体导入烟草 (Nicotianatabacum L .)和棉花 (Gossypiumhirsutum L .)叶片细胞中进行瞬时表达 ,结果表明 ,互补链基因方向启动子属强启动子 ,在叶肉及维管组织中均有较高的活性 ;病毒链基因方向启动子表达活性较低。初步证实分离的互补链基因启动子可作为新型强启动子应用于双子叶植物尤其是棉花的遗传转化。
Artemisia ordosica Krasch. is a dominant shrub occurring mainly on stable sand dunes in the Gobi Desert of China, in the Mongolian phytogeographic region. Achenes of A. ordosica germinate in light but poorly in dark and light is the limiting factor regulating the achene germination in sand depth. Achenes germinate in spring or autumn with an optimal temperature of 20 ℃. Achene mucilage can absorb large amounts of water and has important ecological function. Salt concentrations and sand moisture may regulate achene germination in sand. A. ordosica, A. sphaerocephala Krasch. and A. monosperma Delile. from different climates have similar responses to light, the underground location of achene, and sand moisture. Percentage of seedling emergence from different levels of sand depth is depends on the specific, temperature and intensity of light penetrating through the sand depths, as well as on sand moisture. The desert sand habitat seems to have had a dominant influence on the evolution of the germination strategies of these 3 Artemisia species.
黄振英1,2* Yitzchak CUTTERMAN 2
（1.中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室，北京100093；2.Ben-Gurion Unixersity of the Negev,Jacob Blaustein Institute for Destrt Research and Department of Life Sede Boker Campus 84990,Israel)
摘要：油蒿（Ａｒｔｅｍｉｓｉａ ｏｒｄｏｓｉｃａ Ｋｒａｓｃｈ．）是中国戈壁荒漠的固定沙丘上分布的优势种灌木，属蒙古植被地理分布区成分。油蒿的瘦果在光下萌发，萌发在暗中受到抑制光是调节其在沙土不同深度萌发的限制因素。瘦果在春天或秋天萌发，适宜温度为２０℃。瘦果的粘淮物质能吸收大量水分，具有重要的生态功能。不同浓度的盐溶液能影响瘦果的萌发。土壤湿度也是调节瘦果在沙中萌发的因素。尽管油蒿、白沙蒿（Ａ．ｓｐｈaerocephala Krasch.)与A.monsperma Delile.生长于不同的气候环境中，但其瘦果的萌发对光照、瘦果在沙层中的位置、土壤湿度有着相似的反应。不同沙层深度的出苗率依不同植物、不同温度、穿过不同沙层深度的光强以及沙土湿度的不同而表现出了差异。沙漠环境可能对6 种蒿属植物瘦果的萌发策略的进化起到了主要的影响作用。
The eastern forest stands of Northeast China Transect (NECT) were chosen to study the quantitative relationships between vegetation and pollen in surface samples. The indices of A (association index)，O(over-representation index)，U(under-representation index)，C(correlation coefficient) and R(representation coefficient) for each pollen type were calculated. The results indicated that the relationships between vegetation and pollen type in surface samples were significant and the correlation coefficients of 70% pollen types were more than 0.5(α=0.05); the similarity between pollen assemblage and plant community was good and coefficient of similarity was more than 50%. 69 pollen types found in the surface samples could be divided into four groups with TWINSPAN classification and PCA ordination according to A,O,U and C. The four groups reflected the pollination characteristic of plants and the state of pollen conserved in soil. Group 1 was the associative group which could accurately reflect the local vegetation; Group 2 was over-representative group which had high pollen percentage outproportional to vegetation; Group 3 was the under-representative group in which the pollen were hardly obtainable from the soil, and Group 4 was also an under-representative group, in which pollen were easily obtainable in soil where plants directly grow from. The study also showed that A was a parameter to rectify pollen data and it was easier to obtain than parameter R. The parameters A and R have close relation and their regression equation was: A=-0.0421R2+0.2425R+0.3926(r2=0.6021). These groups and indices provide a solid foundation for using pollen data in accurately reinstating vegetation.
李宜垠1,2* 张新时2 周广胜2
（1. 东北师范大学城市与环境学院，长春130024；2. 中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放实验室，北京100093）
摘要：基于中国东北样带东部森林区 8个植被样方和表土花粉资料 ,定量分析了每种植物与表土花粉类型的关系。结果表明 :花粉类型与植物关系密切 ,在α =0 .0 5的显著性水平上 ,相关系数 (correlationcoefficient)C值大都在0 .5以上 ;表土花粉组合与植物群落间有较大的相似性 ,相似系数 (CC)大于 5 0 %。采用定量描述花粉与植物关系的参数 :联合指数 (associationindex)A、超代表性指数 (over-representationindex)O、低代表性指数 (under_representationindex)U、相关系数C和代表性系数 (representationcoefficient)R等值 ,应用TWINSPAN分类、PCA排序和回归分析 ,把东北样带的表土花粉类型划分为 4类 :具代表性类群组Group 1,它们能正确反映植被 ;超代表性类群组Group 2 ,它们常具有高花粉值 ,与植被不成比例 ;低代表性类群组Group 3,它们的花粉很难分离提取 ;以及低代表性类群组Group 4,其花粉在土壤地层中较常见。在此基础上 ,分析了花粉的R值与A值的关系 ,指出A值和R值一样也是校正地层花粉数据的良好参数 ,并建立了二者间的回归方程 :A =- 0 .0 42 1R2 +0 .2 42 5R +0 .392 6 (r2 =0 .6 0 2 1)。该研究为用古花粉资料准确复原古植被奠定了基础。
A new lignan, together with a known one, was isolated from Isodon lophanthoides var. gerardianus［Bentham］H. Hara. The structure of the new lignan was elucidated as 1-acetoxyl-2e-piperonyl-6e-［6-methoxyl-piperonyl］-3,7-dioxabicyclo-［3,3,0］-octane mainly by 1D and 2D-NMR techniques.
姜北1 陈兴荣2 卢泽勤3 孙汉董1*
2. 云南大理医学院药学系，云南大理67100；3. 广西师范大学化学化工系，桂林541004）
摘要：从狭基线纹香茶菜 (Isodonlophanthoides var.gerardianus [Bentham]H .Hara)的乙酸乙酯部分分离得到两个木脂素类化合物 ,经 1D、2D-NMR技术鉴定 ,分别为 1-acetoxyl-2e,6e-dipiperonyl-3,7-dioxabicyclo-[3,3,0 ]-octane (1)和 1-acetoxyl-2e-piperonyl-6e -[6-methoxyl-piperonyl]-3,7-dioxabicyclo-3,3,0 ]-octane (2 ) ,其中 2为新化合物。
The ultrastructure of phloem and its surrounding parenchyma cells in the developing apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruit was for the first time systematically investigated through transmission electron microscopy during the entire developmental process of the fruit. The results showed that plasmodesmata exist at the thickened part of the cell wall between the sieve elements (SEs) and companion cells (CCs) both in the minor and main veins, with the plasmodesmata being furcated at the CC side and keeping a single oriface at the SE side. In the minor veins the SEs are smaller than the CCs, while the reverse seen in the main veins. The CCs contain electron-dense protoplasm and nucleus, and are enriched with mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus or dictyosomes in their cytoplasm; and they also contain some paramural bodies at the cell wall adjacent to SE and numerous vesicles in their vacuoles. In the minor vein there is a slightly invagination of the plasmalemma of CC into the protoplasm. Many vesicles and microfibril-like structures exist in the SEs of both minor and main veins. In the main veins the cell wall of SEs often become thickened to create a nacreous wall, and a great deal of starch-typed plastids are present in the SEs. There is almost no plasmodesmata between the SE/CC complex and its surrouding phloem parenchyma cells, resulting in the symplastic isolation between them, which may be associated to apoplastic transportation. Plasmodesmata were found numerous both between phloem parenchyma cells and between flesh parenchyma cells (non-phloem parenchyma cells), as well as between phloem parenchyma cell and flesh parenchyma cell. The relationships between the ultrastructure of the fruit phloem and its surrounding parenchyma cells and the photoassimilate unloading pathway in the developing apple fruit are discussed. It is considered that the apoplastic unloading may be the main pathway of the photoassimilates unloaded from SE/CC complex, and that the apoplastic and symplastic pathways may coexist during postphloem transport of photoassimilates in the developing apple fruit.
姜北1 陈兴荣2 卢泽勤3 孙汉董1*
2. 云南大理医学院药学系，云南大理671000；2. 广西师范大学化学化工系，桂林541004）
Cell suspension culture of Saussurea medusa Maxim. was established in a 2 L stirred bioreactor for flavonoids production. After 12 days of culture, the biomass was 10.35 g DW·L-1, containing 428.6 mg/L flavonoids, which was 4.14% of the biomass (dry weight) under the condition of 25 ℃ and light intensity lower than 5 μmol·m-2·s-1. The utility pattern of sugar, change of dissolved oxygen and oxygen uptake rate were also studied.
邢建民1,2 赵德修2** 叶和春2 李国凤2 李佐虎1
（1. 中国科学院化工冶金研究所生化工程国家重点实验室，北京100080；2. 中国科学院植物研究所，北京100093）
摘要：利用 2L搅拌式生物反应器进行了水母雪莲 (Saussureamedusa Maxim .)细胞大规模培养。 2 5℃ ,光强低于 5μmol·m-2 ·s-1条件下培养 12d ,生物量为 10 .35gDW·L-1,黄酮产量为 42 8.6mg/L ,达到细胞干重的 4.14%。此外 ,还对培养过程中的糖代谢、溶解氧浓度变化和氧利用速率进行了研究。
RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was employed to analyze cytoplasmic genome of diploid somatic hybrid plant, morphologically similar to rough lemon which was leaf parent, that was produced via protoplast fusion between rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Hamlin sweet orange (C. sinensis Osb.), the embryogenic parent. Three enzyme-mitocondrial probe combinations and one enzyme-chloroplast probe combination demonstrated that the plant had identical band profiles to Hamlin sweet orange as far as mtDNA and cpDNA were concerned.
A mRNA whole-mount in situ hybridization method is reported here for quick, direct analysis of the spatial and temporal mRNA expression patterns in plant young embryos. A cDNA clone THE3 (tobacco heart embryo 3) was isolated by differential screening from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) heart embryo cDNA library as compared with the globular embryo cDNA library. The distribution of THE3 mRNA in tobacco heart embryos and globular embryos was investigated by a whole-mount in situ hybridization technique, showing that THE 3 is preferentially expressed in heart embryos.
李师弢 吕应堂 杨弘远*
The authors investigated the genetic diversity of 29 natural populations representing Pinus yunnanensis Franch. and its two close relatives, P. densata Mast. and P. kesiya Royle ex Gordn. var. langbianensis (A Chey.) Gaussen. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was performed for macrogametophytes collected from populations in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guangxi. Allozyme data for 33 loci of 14 enzymes demonstrated high levels of genetic variation at both population and species levels in comparison with other conifers, with the mean values for populations being P=0.694, A=2.0 and He=0.145 for P. yunnanensis; P=0.714, A=2.0 and He=0.174 for P. densata; and P=0.758, A=2.1 and He=0.184 for P. kesiya var. langbianensis. Based on Wright's F-statistics, the fixation index of P. yunnanensis, P. densata and P. kesiya var.langbianensis were 0.101, 0.054 and 0.143, respectively, indicating that the populations were largely under random mating. Based on Nei's genetic distance, the genetic differentiation was not obvious among the three species (i.e. the genetic distance was less than 0.075). Because of the wider distribution of P. yunnanensis with greater variety of habitats, it was shown that the genetic differentiation among the P. yunnanensis populations was larger than that of the populations of the other two species. According to morphological, geographic and allozymic evidences, the authors suggested that the three species be better treated as varieties under a single species. In addition, the extensive gene flow among the three pine species resulted in great genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Also, high level of genetic variation of P. yunnanensis provides important basis for its genetic improvement and breeding in future.
虞泓1,2 葛颂1* 黄瑞复2 姜汉侨2
（1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室，北京10009；2. 云南大学生命科学与化学学院，昆明650091）
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