The water transport activity of protoplasts from Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward was determined using a cell image system. The results showed that the protoplast volume increased swiftly when the protoplasts were placed in a hypotonic medium, and the volume increased with the increasing osmotic gradients. The P f values were 0.118×10-3, 0.121×10-3, and 0.133×10-3cm/s under the outward osmotic gradients of 75, 100, and 125 mmol/kg, respectively. The results also showed that the water transport activity of protoplasts could be inhibited by HgCl 2 and stimulated by amphotericin B. Moreover, it was found that ZnCl2 and ZnSO4 had a significant inhibitory effect on the water transport activity of the protoplasts from A. deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. Hayward. The results indicated that the protoplasts of A. deliciosa var. deliciosa cv. Hayward possessed the typical property of aquaporins, suggesting the presence of aquaporins at its plasma membranes.
摘要：采用细胞影像系统，测定了猕猴桃（Ａｃｔｉｎｉｄｉａ ｄｅｌｉｃｉｏｓａ ｃｖ．Ｈａｙｗａｒｄ）原生质体转运水分活力。结果表明，猕猴桃原生质体在低渗介质中体积迅速增大，且随着渗透梯差的加大而显著增大；在渗透梯差为７５、１００、１２５ｍｍｏｌ／ｋｇ下，Ｐｆ值分别为０．１１８×１０－３、０．１２１×１０－３、０．１３３×１０－３ｃｍ／ｓ。同时发现猕猴桃原生质体转运水分活力可以被ＨｇＣｌ２抑制；并且发现人工通道形成剂两性霉素= 能够促进猕猴桃原生质体水分转运，表明所测水分转运是通过膜脂双层进行的。实验还发现，ZnC12和ZnSO4可以显著抑制猕猴桃原生质体水分转运活力。以上可见，猕猴桃原生质体转运水分活力表现出典型的水通道蛋白的特征，暗示猕猴桃原生质体质膜上存在水通道蛋白。
Changes of activated oxygen O2 and H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of enzymes involving cell defense in leaves of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et. Zucc) seedling under different time of low temperature stress were studied. With the increase of stress time，the rate of O2 generation and H2O 2 content increased to a certain degree and then decreased. The increase of MDA content fluctuated as well as its decrease after the low-temperature stress was removed. The activity of cell defense enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascrobate peroxidase (ASP) were gradually decreased. However, after cold pre-treatment of the seedlings all these indexes showed marked changes and different ways of adaptivity to cold stress; thus enhanced the cold tolerance of the plant.
李晶 阎秀峰 祖元刚*
摘要：在不同低温胁迫时间下 ,对红松 (Pinuskoraiensis Sieb .et.Zucc)幼苗针叶中H2 O2 、O-·2 、膜脂过氧化产物丙二醛 (MDA)、组织自动氧化速率及保护酶超氧化物歧化酶 (SOD)、过氧化物酶 (POD)、过氧化氢酶 (CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶 (ASP)的动态变化过程进行了测定。结果表明 ,随着低温胁迫时间的延长 ,O-·2 产生速率和H2 O2 含量先上升后下降 ;MDA的含量呈波动性增加 ,解除低温胁迫后的组织自动氧化速率波动性下降 ;保护酶SOD、POD、CAT及ASP酶活性均逐渐下降。经过低温锻炼 ,植株上述各项指标均发生明显变化 ,并以各自不同的方式增加对低温的适应性 ,抗寒能力明显提高。
Eight kinds of pigment-protein complexes were resolved from the thylakoid membrane of the brown alga （Undaria pinnatifida Harv.) by using non-ionic detergent decanoyl-N-methylglucamide and PAGE technique. According to the apparent molecular weights, spectra characteristics, polypeptide compositions and referring to the higher plant spinach, eight pigment-protein complexes were named under Anderson′s terminology system as CPⅠa, CPⅠ, CPa, LHC1, LHC2, LHC3, LHC4, LHC5.
李爱芬2 陈 敏2 周百成1
（1. 中国科学院海洋研究所，青岛266071；2. 烟台大学生物化学系，烟台264005）
摘要：以非离子去污剂癸基-N-甲基葡萄糖胺为增溶剂 ,采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术从褐藻裙带菜 (Undariapin natifidaHarv.)的类囊体膜上分离到 8种色素_蛋白质复合物。根据其表观分子量、光谱特性和多肽分析结果 ,并以高等植物菠菜 (Spinaciaoleracea L .)为对照 ,按照Anderson命名系统 ,8种色素_蛋白质复合物分别命名为CPⅠa、CPⅠ、CPa、LHC1、LHC2 、LHC3 、LHC4 和LHC5。
Root architectural responses to phosphorus (p) availability may be an important trait for P acquisition efficiency. In the present study, The authors examined the effects of P availability on root architectural responses of different common bean genotypes. Five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes representing different origins and ecotypic races were compared both in a specially designed paper pouch system and a stratified P buffer sand culture system with computer image analysis. The results showed that root architecture was regulated by P availability. P deficiency led to form a shallower root system, as indicated by increased relative distribution of basal root length in the upper layers and decreased the growth angle of basal roots. There was significant genetic variation in root architecture in response to P deficiency both in the paper pouch system and the stratified sand culture system. Under low P conditions some genotypes were more gravitropically sensitive to low P availability, resulting in producing a shallower root system and enhanced root exploration into the surface soil, where soil available P is more concentrated. G19833 and DOR364, which were most contrasting in P efficiency, were also very different in root architectural response to P availability. The results from this study suggest that P availability regulates root architecture and P deficiency leads to shallower root architecture in beans. The genetic potential of root architecture provides the possibility of selecting this trait for improving P acquisition efficiency in common bean.
摘要： 利用特殊设计的营养袋纸培和分层式磷控释砂培等根系生长系统结合计算机图像分析技术，以基根根长在生长介质各层的相对分布和基根平均生长角度为指标，定量测定菜豆（Phaseolus vulgaris l.）根构型在低磷胁迫下的适应性变化及其与磷效率的关系。结果表明，菜豆根构型对低磷胁迫具有适应性反应，在缺磷条件下基根向地性减弱，基根在生长介质表层相对分布增多、基根平均生长角度（与水平线夹角）变小，从而导致整个根系较浅。供试菜豆根构型对低磷胁迫的适应性反应具有显著基因型差异，缺磷时G19833 等基因型向地性明显减弱，基根向高磷剖面趋向生长的能力较强，因而具有较高的磷吸收效率。研究结果表明根构型变化是菜豆适应低磷胁迫的可能机理之一，为通过改变植物根构型来提高磷吸收效率提供了依据。
Using a pair of primers (Primer Ⅰ and Primer Ⅱ), the authors have amplified a fragment of ACC synthase gene about 1025 bp from four varieties of gynoecious species of cucumber （Cucumis sativus L.） viz.:“CORONA”,“DALEVE”,“Zhongnong No.5”,and “Ouzhou No.8”. Sequence analysis revealed that this fragment of ACC synthase gene was more than 99% homologous with the gene reported by Trebitsh et al (1997). The authors regard them as the same gene, but it exhibited less homology with this ACC synthase gene when expressed by other induction. Southern blot analysis showed that this fragment of ACC synthase gene is associated with the sexual phenotype of cucumber,and it is the specific gene of gynoecium. However, the number of its copies has no direct correlation with the degree of female expression; this seems to indicate that there might be other genes associated with the degree of feminization.
叶波平1 吉成均1 杨玲玲3 杨中汉1 王永建2 曹宗巽1*
（1. 北京大学生命科学学院，北京100871；2. 北京市农林科学院，北京100082；
摘要：利用一对引物 (引物 1和引物 2 )分别从雌性系黄瓜 (Cucumissativus L .)品种“CORONA”、“DALEVE”和强雌性黄瓜品种“中农五号”、“欧洲八号”的基因组DNA中扩增到一长约 10 2 5bp的ACC合酶基因片段。序列分析表明 :该基因片段与Trebitsh等 1997年发表的ACC合酶基因片段的同源性大于 99% ,认为这两个基因片段应该是同一个基因 ,不同品种来源的该基因的相同性说明了其高度的保守性 ,并暗示了该基因在黄瓜性别决定中的重要作用。此基因片段与其他在不同诱导条件下表达的ACC合酶基因的同源性较低 (小于 70 % )。Southern分析表明此基因片段与黄瓜的性别表型有关 ,是雌性系黄瓜特有的。此基因的存在与黄瓜的雌性表达为“有”和“无”的关系 ,其拷贝数的多少与雌性表达强弱并无直接相关性 ,暗示在黄瓜中另有与雌性表达强弱有关的基因。
P61 was a protein identified from chloroplasts of Nongken 58S, a male sterile mutant of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica). Microsequence analysis has revealed that its N-terminal sequence was identical to N-termini of ATPase β subunits of chloroplasts from rice and barley. The antiserum produced using ATPase β subunit from maize specifically recognized P61. P61 had the same molecular weight as the chloroplast ATPase β subunit of wild-type rice “Nongken 58”, but had different isoelectric point (pI) from this β subunit. P61 was more basic than this β subunit. Thus, P61 would be identified as an isoform of the chloroplast ATPase β subunit of rice, named β1. Genetic analysis with a F2 population of Nongken 58S×“Nongken 58” showed that a single recessive genic gene regulated the formation of β1.
王台* 赵玉锦 匡廷云
nifH-gfp 表达载体的构建及其在Enterobacter gergoviae 57-7中的表达
王伟* 董越梅 安千里 刘祥林* 李久蒂**
摘要：采用PCR技术 ,从GFPmut2中扩增得到三位点突变的报告基因gfpS65T、V68L、S72A片段 ,并将它和肺炎克氏杆菌(Klebsiellapneumoniae (Schr eter)Trevisan)M5a1的固氮酶结构基因nifH的启动子和其起始密码子相融合 ,获得nifH-gfp表达载体pMGFP2 ;再在pMGFP2上插入卡那霉素抗性基因 ,获得可在日勾维肠杆菌 (Enterobactergergoviae)5 7-7表达nifH-gfp的表达载体pMGFP2 .1。研究了此表达载体经转化E .gergoviae 5 7-7后 ,NH+ 4和氧对E .gergoviae5 7-7中nifH-gfp表达的影响。
关键词： nifH 启动子；绿色荧光蛋白；gfp 表达载体
he genetic relationships among 12 wild relatives and cultivar of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) as well as 1 perennial wild barley grass (H. brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link) from China were investigated by RAPD analysis. 36 out of 63 arbitrary primers produced 285 distinctive bands in total, 219 of which were polymorphic. Clearly resolved bands were treated as independent characters and scored for their presence or absence in a binary data matrix. Simple matching coefficients and Nei's similarity coefficients were calculated respectively. Dendrograms were generated by using the PHYLIP 3.5c software. The results revealed that the cultivated barley and their wild relatives from China were clustered into one group, among which, the two-rowed wild relatives of barley ( H. vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum (Koch) Hsü) and the six-rowed wild forms (H. vulgare L. ssp. agriocrithon (Aberg) Hsü) were respectively clustered into different subgroups. It was considered that wild relatives of barley from China were subspecies of H.vulgare. And it was proposed that the cultivated barley was originally evolved from the two-rowed wild barley. The retrogressive two-rowed wild barley and the bottle-shaped wild forms (H. vulgare L. ssp. agriocrithon var. lagunculiforme Bakht Hsü) were the intermediate types in the evolutionary route from the two-rowed wild barley to the six-rowed wild forms and eventually evolved to the cultivated barley.
陈新平 闫玲 丁毅*
摘要：采用RAPD技术对 12份中国近缘野生大麦和栽培大麦 (Hordeumvulgare L .)、1份多年生短芒大麦草 (H .brevisubulatum (Trin .)Link)进行了分析。 6 3个随机引物中有 36个能产生 2 85个稳定的扩增产物 ,其中 2 19个产物具多态性。将每个扩增产物看作一个独立的性状 ,按其有无列出二元数据矩阵 ,计算单匹配系数 (M) ,Nei氏相似性系数 (S)。PHYLIP 3.5c软件包聚类分析的结果表明中国栽培大麦与近缘野生大麦聚为一类 ;近缘野生大麦中 ,野生二棱大麦 (H .vulgareL .ssp .spontaneum (Koch)Hs櫣)与短芒六棱野大麦 (H .vulgareL .ssp .agriocrithon (Aberg)Hs櫣)各聚为一亚类。认为中国近缘野生大麦属于栽培大麦种内的不同亚种 ;推测中国栽培大麦可能是由野生二棱大麦起始 ,经过了退化型野生二棱大麦、六棱瓶形野大麦 (H .vulgareL .ssp .agriocrithonvar.lagunculiforme BakhtHs櫣)等中间类型 ,进化到野生六棱大麦 ,最终进化到栽培大麦的。
Two cDNA libraries were constructed from microdissected 214 rice proembryos (2-3 d after pollination) and 121 just differentiating young embryos (3-5 d after pollination) respectively through RT-PCR technique. The primary libraries had a total of 3.7×10 phages for the proembryos and a total of 2.5×10 phages for the just differentiating young embryos, in which 96% of the phages were recombinants. Insert sizes ranging from 400 bp to 3?500 bp were obtained. All of theabove mentioned accorded with the general requirements of cDNA library construction.
陈绍荣 李师弢 吕应堂 杨弘远*
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