Eighty-four published papers were synthesized using meta-analysis (a statistical method to summarize the different individual studies under the same subject), with results of the environmental factors (soil water deficit, low soil nitrogen, high temperature and high concentration O3) affecting significantly the response of plant to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Under unstressed condition, the overall effect sizes of twelve ecophysiological variables of C3 plants were negative, other twelve positive. For negative effect group, the first five variables ranked as: stomatal conductance ( g s)> leaf dark respiration rate （Rd）>leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis ( N m)>leaf protein content on a mass basis ( Prm)>leaf nitrogen content on a structural mass basis ( Ns); for positive one, root biomass ( Bt)>shoot biomass ( Bs)>leaf starch content on a mass basis ( St )>light saturated net photosynthetic rate ( A )>total biomass ( Bt). The Bt and A of C3 plants increased 30.01% and 40.36% respectively under unstressed condition, while g s decreased 30.39%.
摘要：对84篇文献有关植物对大气CO2浓度倍增响应进行整合分析(一种对同一主题下多个独立实验进行综合的统计学方法),发现环境因素(土壤水分亏缺、土壤低氮、高温和高浓度O3) 显著地影响植物对高CO22浓度的响应.无任何环境胁迫时,高CO2浓度对C3植物的12个植物生理生态指标产生负效应,对另12个则表现正效应,负响应最强的前5个指标为:气孔导度(gs)＞暗呼吸速率(Rd)＞单位叶重中的氮含量(Nm)＞单位叶重中蛋白质含量(Prm)＞单位叶结构重量中氮含量(Ns);正响应最强烈的前5个指标为:根生物量(Br)＞地上部生物量(Bs)＞单位叶重中淀粉含量(St)＞光饱和时的光合速率(A)＞总生物量(Bt).可见植物的气体交换和生物量受高CO2 浓度影响较大,叶化学成分的变化则以淀粉、单位叶重含氮量和单位叶重蛋白质含量较为明显.无任何胁迫时,C3植物的总生物量和光饱和时的光合速率分别提高30.01%和40.36%; 气孔导度下降30.39%.
For better understanding of the relationships between genera, the primordium occurrence and morphological developmental process of female inflorescence, cymule and floret in Carpinus turczaninowii Hance and Ostryopsis davidiana Decne. of the Betulaceae were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Both species were monoecious. Their female inflorescence was a compound spike comprising several cymules arranged helically along an inflorescence axis. Each cymule consisted of two florets and five bracts, i.e., one primary bract and four other secondary ones which were developed from two semi-circular common primordia, respectively. In Carpinus , the adaxial secondary bracts grew slowly, while the abaxial ones grew fast, resulting in the appearance of a wide leafy bract upon maturity. In Ostryopsis , however, both abaxial and adaxial secondary bracts were fully developed, becoming a bladder-like but unclosed involucre when mature. Perianth primordia in both genera were circular. When the ovary became larger and larger, the perigone grew gradually, and finally surrounded and was adnate to the ovary. Some traditional viewpoints on the number of bracts and the orientation of bicarpellate ovary in cymule were clarified based on this study. The cymule bracts were not so many as those observed by Abbe; and the two bicarpellate ovaries were orientated perpendicularly, rather than parallel.
陈之端1 邢树平1 梁汉兴1,2 路安民1
The in vivo highly tissue-dependent abscisic acid (ABA) specific-binding sites localized in cytosol were identified and characterized in the flesh of developing apple ( Malus pumila L. cv. Starkrimon) fruits. ABA binding activity was scarcely detectable in the microsomes and the cytosolic fraction isolated from the freshly harvested fruits via an in vitro ABA binding incubation of the subcellular fractions. If, however, instead that the subcellular fractions were in vitro incubated in H-ABA binding medium, the flesh tissue discs were directly in vivo incubated in H-ABA binding medium, a high ABA binding activity to the cytosolic fraction isolated from these tissue discs was detected. The in vivo ABA binding capacity of the cytosolic fraction was lost if the tissue discs had been pretreated with boiling water, indicating that the ABA binding needs a living state of tissue. The in vivo tissue-dependent binding sites were shown to possess protein nature with both active serine residua and thiol-group of cysteine residua in their functional binding center. The ABA binding of the in vivo tissue-dependent ABA binding sites to the cytosolic fraction was shown to be saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. The scatchard plotting gave evidence of two different classes of ABA binding proteins, one with a higher affinity ( Kd =2.9 nmol/L) and the other with lower affinity ( Kd =71.4 nmol/L). Phaseic acid, 2- trans -4- trans -ABA or cis-trans -(－)-ABA had substantially no affinity to the binding proteins, indicating their stereo-specificity to bind physiologically active ABA. The time course, pH- and temperature-dependence of the in vivo tissue-dependent binding proteins were determined. It is hypothesized that the detected ABA-binding proteins may be putative ABA-receptors that mediate ABA signals during fruit development.
摘要：将苹果(Malus pumila L. cv. Starkrimon)果肉微粒体和细胞可溶组分在含有 3H-ABA的缓冲介质中分别温育,仅在细胞可溶组分中测到微弱的3H-ABA结合活性.但是,如果将果肉组织圆片在3H-ABA缓冲介质中直接温育,经制备亚细胞组分后直接测定,在细胞可溶组分中测到很高的3H-ABA特异结合活性.果肉圆片用沸水预先热处理使细胞可溶组分中的3H-ABA结合活性完全丧失,说明ABA结合依赖于组织的活体状态 .药理实验证明了ABA结合位点的蛋白质性质,同时证明该蛋白的活性中心具有-SH和丝氨酸基团.ABA结合蛋白对ABA的结合具有可饱和性、可逆性和高亲和力.Scatchard作图证明存在2种ABA结合蛋白,一种具有较高的亲和力,其解离常数(Kd)为2.9 nmol/L,另一种亲和力相对较低,其Kd值为71.4 nmol/L.用ABA结构相似物进行的竞争实验证明了AB A结合蛋白对配体结合的立体特异性.分析了ABA结合蛋白与ABA结合的时间曲线、pH和温度依赖性. 本研究检测到的依赖活体组织的ABA结合蛋白可能是果实发育过程中介导ABA信号的受体.
Sterility changeover induced by low temperature in male sterility line CMS7311 of heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. penkinsis ) was investigated under constant temperature, day/night alternating temperature in light-growth-incubator and outdoor natural day/night alternating temperature respectively. It showed that the sterility of CMS7311 has significant change with temperature. The constant temperature of 6-12℃ was suitable to induce the changeover of sterility (CGS) of CMS7311; the shortest treatment time for CGS induction at this temperature was 3 d. The significant value of sterility changeover of CMS7311 occurred at the constant temperature of 6-9℃ after treatment for 6-9 d. The intensity of CGS was stronger under constant temperature than under alternate temperature, but the shortest treatment time inducing CGS has no difference between them. When treated for 9 d under the day/night alternating temperature of 11/7 ℃, its sterility could also turn to normal fertility (near to sterile grade 1 or zero). In normal condition, the interval from the end of temperature treatment to the beginning of CGS induction was 10-16 d. In the condition of natural day/night alternating temperature, the lower limit of temperature for effective CGS induction was at the daily mean temperature (DMT) of 3.5-6.8℃, and the shortest treatment time which could induce the sterility changeover was also longer than that under constant temperature, being 11 d at DMT of 1.5-3.1℃. In addition, for the apical dominance, the flower bud on the first lateral branch showed the CGS 8-10 d later than the flower bud on the main stem under the same temperature with the same days of treatment. The intensity of CGS of CMS7311 on the first lateral branch was also weaker than the flower bud on the main stem.
摘要：在人工控温和田间自然变温条件下,研究了结球白菜(Brassica campestris L. ssp. penkinsis)胞质雄性不育系CMS7311育性转换的温度特征.结果表明:随温度变化CMS7311有明显的育性转换,人工恒温和人工变温条件下诱导CMS7311发生育性转换(不育→可育)的温度范围为日均温6～12 ℃,有效诱导的最短时间为3 d,显著诱导的温度范围为6～9 ℃.自然变温条件下,有效诱导的温度低限为日均温3.5～6.8 ℃,但诱导育性转换的最短时间要适当加长.无论恒温还是变温,在日均温9 ℃下处理9 d育性转换达到最大,接近正常可育(0级或1级).正常情况下,温度处理后到发生育性转换大约需要10～16 d,育性转换发生在孢原细胞形成至花粉分化阶段.由于白菜生长的顶端优势作用,在相同诱导条件下,同一植株侧枝较主枝的育性转换时间晚8～10 d,且转换程度较弱.
It is well known that no chlorophyll synthesis and photosystem biogenesis have been detected in dark-grown angiosperm seedlings. However, in this report, we showed that both PSⅡ and PSⅠ could be formed in dark-grown lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seedlings. Lots of evidence were given: First, during the dark-grown period, the single fluorescence emission peak at 679 nm in lotus embryo red-shifted and transformed into the normal PSⅡ fluorescence emission; Simultaneously, PSⅠ fluorescence emission at 730 nm appeared and increased obviously; Second, with partial denaturing SDS-PAGE method, PSⅠ chlorophyll-protein complex could be clearly separated from 10 days dark-grown lotus seedlings; Third, the existence of Lhca1 was also proved by Western blots. Moreover, measurements of electron transfer rate demonstrated that both PSⅡand PSⅠ core in dark-grown lotus seedlings were photochemically active.
季宏伟 唐崇钦 李良璧 匡廷云*
摘要：被子植物在黑暗中萌发生长不能合成叶绿素和建成光合系统,但是将莲(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)胚芽置于黑暗中萌发生长时,却可以清楚地观察到它的光合系统进行发育: 首先,在原位低温荧光光谱上,LHCⅡ的荧光发射逐步红移变成典型的PSⅡ荧光发射,同时随着萌发时间的延长,PSⅠ的荧光发射也从无到有,逐渐增强;其次,对暗萌发10 d莲苗的叶绿体进行部分变性凝胶电泳分析也得到了PSⅠ的叶绿素蛋白复合物条带,通过Western blot s的蛋白免疫检测,在暗萌发莲苗中也证实了LHCⅠ组分中有Lhca1的存在;最后,对暗萌发莲苗叶绿体的PSⅡ和PSⅠ电子传递活性测量结果表明,在暗中发育形成的PSⅡ和PSⅠ核心都是有光化学活性的.文章讨论了莲胚芽暗萌发过程中进行光合系统发育的原因.
关键词： 莲；光合系统发育；暗萌发；Western blots
The chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics of marine red alga Grateloupia turuturu Yamada, green alga Ulva pertusa Kjellm and brown alga Laminaria japonica Aresch during natural sustained dehydration were monitored and investigated. The pulse amplified modulation (PAM) system was used to analyze the distinct fluorescence parameters during thallus dehydration. Results proved that the fluorescence kinetics of different seaweed all showed three patterns of transformation with sustained water loss. These were: 1) peak kinetic pattern (at the early stage of dehydration fluorescence enhanced and quenched subsequently, representing a normal physiological state). 2) plateau kinetic pattern (with sustained water loss fluorescence enhanced continuously but quenching became slower, finally reaching its maximum). 3) Platform kinetic pattern (fluorescence fell and the shape of kinetic curve was similar to plateau kinetic pattern). A critical water content (CWC) could be found and defined as the percentage of water content just prior to the fluorescence drop and to be a significant physiological index for evaluation of plant drought tolerance. Once thallus water content became lower than this value the normal peak pattern can not be recovered even through rehydration, indicating an irreversible damage to the thylakoid membrane. The CWC value corresponding to different marine species were varied and negatively correlated with their desiccation tolerance, for example. Laminaria japonica had the highest CWC value (around 90%) and the lowest dehydration tolerance of the three. In addition, a fluorescence “burst” was found only in red algae during rehydration. The different fluorescence parameters Fo , Fv and Fv/ Fm were measured and compared during water loss. Both Fo and Fv increased in the first stage of dehydration but Fv / Fm kept almost constant. So the immediate response of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence to dehydration was an enhancement. Later with sustained dehydration Fo increased continuously while Fv decreased and tended to become smaller and smaller. The major changes in fluorescence (including fluorescence drop during dehydration and the burst during rehydration) were all attributed to the change in Fo instead of Fv . This significance of Fo indicates that it is necessary to do more research on Fo as well as on its relationship with the state of thylakoid membrane.
武宝王干1 陈贻竹2 臧汝波3 曾呈奎3
（1. 暨南大学生物工程系，广州%510632；2. 中国科学院华南植物研究所，广州%510650；
摘要：在自然干燥条件下,跟踪研究了海洋红藻带形蜈蚣藻(Grateloupia turuturu Yamada) ,绿藻石莼(Ulva pertusa Kjellm)和褐藻海带(Laminaria japonica Are sch)的叶绿素荧光动力学曲线的变化,并用脉冲调制荧光仪分析了藻体脱水过程中的各个荧光参数.结果表明,在持续脱水过程中,3类海藻的荧光动力学曲线都显示出3个阶段的变化,即: 1)在脱水开始时正常的峰形曲线; 2)荧光上升至最高时持平、形成了高原型曲线 ; 3)荧光跌落变成平台型曲线.发现荧光跌落前藻体的含水百分数是一个重要的生理指标 ,称为临界水量(CWC),一旦藻体失水至低于此临界水量时,即便复水也不能使原来的峰形曲线得以恢复,说明脱水可能引起了叶绿体类囊体膜的不可逆损伤.临界水量可以用来衡量不同海藻的耐旱力,其数值高低随不同海藻而不同,并与其耐旱力成负相关.如在上述3 大类海藻中,海带的 CWC 值最高(约90%),但其耐旱性最差.此外,在红藻(只有红藻) 经受干燥后作复水处理时,观察到有荧光急剧上升(爆发)的现象.对海膜脱水前后的几个荧光参数(F0、Fv、Fv/Fm)作了测定和比较,发现F0和 Fv在脱水的第一阶段都上升,而Fv/Fm值维持基本不变.因此可以得出结论,活体叶绿素荧光对干旱的最初响应是立即增强,当继续失水时,F0保持上升而 Fv却下降并越来越低,故此时总荧光的变化(包括荧光的跌落和爆发)主要是由F 0的变化所引起的,因而进一步研究F0与脱水时类囊体膜状态变化的关系具有重要意义.
The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) on ATP and ρ-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) hydrolysis by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) hypocotyls was studied. Results showed that lyso-PC stimulated the hydrolysis of ATP; ATP hydrolysis was enhanced dramatically when lyso-PC was within 0-0.03%, and increased slightly when lyso-PC was higher than 0.03%. At the concentration of 0.03%, lyso-PC stimulated ATP hydrolysis by 80.5%. Kinetics analysis showed that V max increased from 0.46μmol Pi·mg-1 protein·min-1 to 0.87 μmol Pi·mg-1 protein·min-1 while Km increased from 0.88 mmol/L to 1.15 mmol/L under lyso-PC treatment. The optimum pH of ATP hydrolysis was shifted from 6.5 to 7.0. Moreover, it was found lyso-PC enhanced the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by hydroxylamine. In the presence of 200 mmol/L hydroxylamine, ATP hydrolysis was inhibited by 74.4%, while it was inhibited by 84.4% when treated with lyso-PC. However, PNPP hydrolysis and the inhibitory effect of vanadate were not affected by lyso-PC. The above results indicated that the kinase domain might be an action site or regulatory region of the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain in the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase.
溶血卵磷脂对大豆下胚轴质膜H+-ATPase ATP 和对-硝基苯磷酸水解活性的影响
Effect of nitrate and ammonium on the activity of tonoplast pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) was investigated in the roots of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The results showed that the activity of V-PPase was increased by ammonium nutrition, compared with nitrate nutrition. The H+ transport of tonoplast vesicles by V-PPase was also stimulated by ammonium nutrition. The result of Western blot indicated that the protein amount of V-PPase was increased by ammonium nutrition.
朱祝军1 钱亚榕1 Wolfgang PFEIFFER 2
By 30%-60% (NH4)2SO4 fractional precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and anion-exchange chromatography on Waters AP-1 column (ProteinPM-Pak DEAE 15HR), a proteinase which can inactivate soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) was purified from mung bean (Vigna rabiata (L.) Wilczek) sprouts. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 29.8 kD by SDS-PAGE, and its Km and Vmax for STI were 769.2N-α-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester BAEE/mL and 115.3 BAEE·mL-1·min-1 respectively. This proteinase was stable at temperatures lower than 50℃ and pH 6.5-8.5, and 90.91% STI activity of defatted soybean powder was inactivated by this preparation, with proteolytic activity 5 000 BAEE/mL at 50℃ and pH 8.0 in 4 h.
陈中 杨晓泉 赵谋明
摘要: 通过30％－60％（NH4）2SO4分级沉淀、DEAE－Sepharose CL-6B离子交换层析、Sephacryl S-200凝胶过滤层析和Waters AP-1离子交换层析，从萌发的绿豆（Vigna rabiata(L.)Wilczek）种子中分离纯化出一种可降解大豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂（STI)的蛋白酶。SDS－PAGE测定该酶的分子量为29.8kD。该酶催化降解STI的Km值为769.2BAEE/mL，Vmax为115.3BAEE·min^-1。该酶在50℃、pH8．0，相对酶活力5000BAEE／mL和4h的反应时可将脱脂大豆粉中的STI活性钝化90.91%。该酶在温度低于50℃及pH6.5-8.5时能保持其活性。
Six rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes with different performances under phosphorus (P) deficiency stress were tested in mixed growth medium of vermiculite and sand under different conditions of P supply to evaluate the effects of P deficiency stress on lateral root growth and the relations between lateral root growth induced by P deficiency and P absorption. The results showed that elongation and development of lateral root were induced by P deficiency. There was significant genotypic variation in lateral root growth in response to P deficiency. A significant positive correlation was observed between the increase of lateral root length per cm of nodal root and the increase of root surface area per cm of nodal root (RSAP), while no significant correlation was observed between the increase of lateral root number per cm of nodal root and the increase of RSAP. The result suggested that the increase of root surface area under P deficiency condition could be mainly attributable to the increase of lateral root length induced. P uptake was significantly positively correlated with the total root surface area and positively correlated with the total lateral root length and the total lateral root number under P deficiency, which implied that elongation and development of lateral root were important to the ability of P uptake from growth medium where P supply was poor. Analysis of soluble sugar content indicated that P deficiency stress changed the distribution of carbohydrate between roots and shoots.
李海波 夏铭 吴平*
摘要：用蛭石与石英砂作为混合培养介质研究了低磷胁迫对水稻(Oryza sativ a L.)苗期侧根发生发育的影响及其与磷吸收的相关关系.结果表明:低磷对水稻的侧根发生发育具有明显的诱导作用及基因型差异.相关性分析表明: 单位侧根长度的增加与单位根表面积的增大极显著相关,而单位侧根数量的增多与单位根表面积的增大无显著的相关性.表明单位根表面积的增加主要来自于单位侧根的伸长.侧根参数与磷含量的相关性分析表明:低磷条件下,侧根总长度和侧根数量都与植株磷含量存在显著的正相关,根系总表面积与磷含量存在极显著的正相关.表明在低磷条件下,侧根的发生发育对水稻的磷吸收具有重要的作用.根系和地上部的可溶性糖含量分析表明:低磷胁迫改变了同化物在地上部和根系的分配.生物量测定表明:低磷胁迫显著增大了植株的根冠比.
Root morphology in plants may be related to phosphorus (P) efficiency by affecting the absorption characteristics of the root system. However, genotypic variation in root morphological characteristics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as affected by P availability has not been well clarified. In the present study, systematic studies were conducted in a P-buffered sand culture system using three pairs of common bean parental materials with contrasting root traits in response to P deficiency. The results indicate that P availability significantly affects bean root morphology. Common bean tends to have smaller root system, shorter and coarser roots at low P availability. Genotypic variation in root morphology was observed among different genotypes in response to P availability. The P efficient genotypes appear to have larger, finer and longer root systems than the P inefficient genotypes, and such a variation was particularly obvious in the basal roots. From allomeric analysis, we found that morphological characteristics of the basal roots contribute more to P efficiency than those of the tap roots. Further studies with the F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from one of the most contrasting parental pairs, DOR364 and G19833, confirmed the above findings, indicating that those morphological characteristics are inheritable hence provide potential for genetic improvement. Root morphology in plants may be related to phosphorus (P) efficiency by affecting the absorption characteristics of the root system. However, genotypic variation in root morphological characteristics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as affected by P availability has not been well clarified. In the present study, systematic studies were conducted in a P-buffered sand culture system using three pairs of common bean parental materials with contrasting root traits in response to P deficiency. The results indicate that P availability significantly affects bean root morphology. Common bean tends to have smaller root system, shorter and coarser roots at low P availability. Genotypic variation in root morphology was observed among different genotypes in response to P availability. The P efficient genotypes appear to have larger, finer and longer root systems than the P inefficient genotypes, and such a variation was particularly obvious in the basal roots. From allomeric analysis, we found that morphological characteristics of the basal roots contribute more to P efficiency than those of the tap roots. Further studies with the F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from one of the most contrasting parental pairs, DOR364 and G19833, confirmed the above findings, indicating that those morphological characteristics are inheritable hence provide potential for genetic improvement.
摘要：应用磷控释砂培以及计算机图象分析技术,研究了磷效率差异显著的菜豆(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)亲本及其重组自交系后代的根形态特性及其与磷效率的关系.试验结果表明,供磷状况显著影响菜豆根系形态学特性.在低磷胁迫下,菜豆根系总根长变短、根部生物量减少,根直径增大.菜豆根形态特性对低磷有效性的适应性反应具有显著的基因型差异.在低磷条件下磷高效率基因型的根系比磷低效率基因型相对根部生物量较大、总根长较长,根表面积较大.异计分析表明,菜豆基根根形态特性在低磷条件下的适应性变化对磷效率的贡献远远大于主根,并且这些适应性变化是可以遗传的,表明通过对菜豆根形态特性进行遗传改良来提高磷效率有一定的可行性.
Nine rice Oryza sativa L.） mutant lines lacking the seed storage glutelin α-2 subunit were obtained from the progenies of fertilized egg cells treated with N-methy-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The mutants could be classified into three types: the α-1 subunit increased type (α-1H/α-2L), decreased the β-2 subunit decreased type (β-2L/α-2L) and the α-3 subunit increased type (α-3H/α-2L) according to their SDS-PAGE profiles. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis revealed that all of the mutants lacked a polypeptide of pI 6.71/α-2, while new polypeptides of pI 6.50/α-1 and pI 6.90/α-3 formed in α-1H/α-2L and α-3H/α-2L mutants respectively. Although the β-2L/α-2L mutants did not form new polypeptide, their pI 8.74/β-2 polypeptide was also decreased, suggesting that the two polypeptides decreased in β-2L/α-2L mutants might derive from the same glutelin precursor. These mutant lines are very useful in studying genetic characterisation,the mechanism of genetic regulation on biosynthesis, gene function and proteomics of rice seed storage glutelin.
曲乐庆1 魏晓丽1 佐藤光2 小川雅广3 熊丸敏博2
（1. 中国科学院遗传研究所，北京100101；2. 日本国立九州大学农学部，福冈812-8581；3. 日本国山口县立大学生命科学部，山口753-8502
摘要：通过筛选水稻（Oryza sativa L.)受精卵的甲基亚硝基脲（MNU）处理后代，获得9个谷蛋白α-2亚基减少（α－2L）突变体。这些突变体依据其SDS－PAGE图谱又可分成3种类型：α－1显著增加型（α－1H／α－2L）、β－2减少型（β－2L／α－2L）和α－3显著增加型（α3－H／α－2L）。双向电泳分析揭示了产生突变体α-2L的原因在于缺少了一条pI6.71/α－2的多肽；α－1H和α－3H的原因在于分别敢一条新的多肽pI6.50/α-1和pI6.90/α-3;而产生β－2的原因在于缺少一条pI18.74/β－2的多肽。pI6.71/α-2和pI8.74/β-2多肽同时缺失于同一突变体暗示二者可能来源于同一前本，为同一基因的产物。这些突变体为水稻谷蛋白遗传规律、生物合成遗传调控机制、基因功能以及蛋白组学研究不可多得的素材。
Stylar soluble proteins in self-incompatible “Nijisseiki” (S2S4), self-compatible “Osa-Nijisseiki” ( S2SSM4, SM means stylar-part mutant) and its progeny were analyzed by isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE).SSM4-allele associated protein, SSM4-protein, existed in the style of “Osa-Nijisseiki” and its progeny. The SSM4-protein expressed only in the stigma of “Osa-Nijisseiki”, whereas in its original variety “Nijisseiki”, S4-protein expressed in the upper and lower parts of the style as well as in the stigma, and its expression amount decreased from the upper part to the lower part. The protein bands analyzed by IEF-PAGE were subjected to RNase activity staining. The results showed that the S4- and the SSM4-proteins have the similar molecular weights (approximately 30 kD) and RNase activity. The specific-activities measured with yeast RNA were similar, equivalent to approximately 275 U·min-1·mg-1 protein. The S SM4-protein showed almost the same inhibitory effects as the S4-protein on the pollen germination and the pollen tube growth with S4- and SSM4-alleles in vitro . From the above results, the reasons of the self-compatibility of “Osa-Nijisseiki” are considered as (1) low expression of the SSM4-gene and (2) the SSM4-gene expression only in stigma.
张绍铃1* 平土冢伸2 徐国华1 房经贵1 刘友良3
（1. 南京农业大学园艺学院，南京210095；2. 日本三重大学生物资源学部，日本津514-8507；
摘要：提取梨(Pyrus serotina Rehd.)自交不亲和品种"二十世纪"(基因型为S2S4)、自交亲和的突变品种"奥嗄二十世纪"(S2S SM4,SM=Stylar-part mutant;花柱部分突变)及其亲和后代花柱的可溶性蛋白.经等电聚焦电泳(IEF-PAGE)分析表明,"奥嗄二十世纪"及其后代花柱仍存在SSM4蛋白,但其含量逐代减少,同时发现"奥嗄二十世纪"的S SM4基因仅在柱头表达,而"二十世纪"的S4基因表达的部位除了柱头外,还包括花柱上部及花柱下部,且表达量呈现从柱头到花柱下部下降的趋势.S蛋白经等电聚焦电泳的凝胶板进行RNase活性染色处理,也得到相同的结果.从花柱(包括柱头)中纯化出的S蛋白经SDS-PAGE电泳后进行RNase活性染色的结果表明 ,S4与SSM4蛋白的分子量相近(约30 kD),并且均具有RNase活性.进一步以酵母RNA为基质测定的比活性也基本相等,约为275 U·min-1·mg-1蛋白.在离体条件下,上述两种S蛋白(S-RNase)也以相同的程度抑制S4或SSM4花粉发芽及花粉管伸长.研究证明,自交亲和突变品种"奥嗄二十世纪"的SSM4基因也具有原始自交不亲和品种"二十世纪"S4基因的功能.因此,其自交亲和的原因可归结为SSM4基因的表达量较少及 SSM4基因仅在柱头中表达的缘故.
关键词： 梨；自交不亲和性；,S基因；S 蛋白；花粉管伸长
cDNA encoding caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) from Chinese white poplar ( Populus tomentosa Carr.) was cloned by RT-PCR and sequenced. Northern analysis displayed that the CCoAOMT was expressed specifically in the developing secondary xylem and its expression was coincident with lignification. The antisense CCoAOMT cDNA was transformed into P. tremula×P. alba mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn. Transgenic plants were identified with PCR, PCR-Southern and Southern analysis. Lignin content in 5- to 6-month-old transgenic plants was measured. One of the transgenic lines had significant reduction of 17.9% in Klason lignin content as compared with that of untransformed poplar. The results demonstrate that antisense repression of CCoAOMT is an efficient way to reduce lignin content for improving pulping property in engineered trees.
魏建华 赵华燕 张景昱 刘惠荣 宋艳茹*
摘要： 用RT-PCR方法从毛白杨（Populus tomentosa Carr）中克隆了CC0AOMT 基因的cDNA 片段，并对其序列进行了分析。Northern杂交表明该基因在毛白杨正在木质化的次生木质部高水平表达，且与木质化进程同步。构建了该基因反义表达载体，根癌土壤杆菌（Agrobacterium tumefaciens ( Smith et Townsend)Conn）介导转化杂交杨（欧洲山杨>银白杨，P.tremulaxP.alba）。采用PCR,PCR-Southern及Southern杂交对获得的转基因植株进行分子检测，并测定移栽5-6 个月的转基因植株的Klason木质素含量，其中一个转基因株系的Klason木质素含量比未转基因对照杨树下降17.9%。结果表明利用反义RNA技术对杨树CCoAOMT 基因的表达可以降低转基因植株的木质素含量，达到改善其造纸性能的目的。
Growth and competition of 14 herb species were investigated in the experimental microcoenosiums in laboratory under the following environmental factors and treatment levels: high and low fertility, clipping and un-clipping, and with and without microbial infusion. The most intense competition and the biggest difference in biomass among the species were detected in the high fertility microcoenosiums subjected to no clipping disturbance. Clippings or low fertility reduced the growth of the competitors and resulted in more even biomass distribution among the species. Successive clippings reduced the total accumulative biomass of the microcoenosiums. Microbial infusion significantly increased the growth of legume species Lotus corniculatus L. and Trifolium pratense L. The growth of Alopecurus pratensis L. was also raised by microbial infusion, whereas Dactylis glomerata L. had more biomass in without-microbial-infusion microcoenosiums than in microbial infusion ones. Most of the 14 species were not obviously affected. The positive effect of microbial infusion was more marked in the low fertility microcoenosiums.
摘要：研究了高肥力和低肥力、割草和不割草、微生物接种和不接种处理对实验群落中14种常见草本植物的生长和竞争的影响.高肥力不割草的群落,不同种间的生物量差别最大,竞争最激烈; 割草和低肥力减弱竞争者的生长而导致种间生物量差异减小.多次的割草减少群落的总生物量; 微生物接种明显增加2种豆科植物百脉根(Lotus corniculatus L.)和红车轴草(Trifolium pratense L.)的生长,也有利于非豆科植物大看麦娘(Alopecurus p ratensis L.)的生长,而鸭茅(Dactylis glomerata L.)在无微生物接种的群落生物量较多,微生物接种对其他植物的生长无显著的影响.在低肥力群落,接种微生物的促进作用更加显著.
Among the many approaches for studying the net primary productivity ( NPP ), a new method by using remote sensing was introduced in this paper. With spectral information source (the visible band, near infrared band and thermal infrared band) of NOAA-AVHRR, we can get the relative index and parameters, which can be used for estimating NPP of terrestrial vegetation. By means of remote sensing, the estimation of biomass and NPP is mainly based on the models of light energy utilization. In other words, the biomass and NPP can be calculated from the relation among NPP , absorbed photosynthetical active radiation (APAR) and the rate (ε) of transformation of APAR to organic matter, thus：NPP=(FPAR×PAR)×［ε*×σT×σE×σS×(1-Ym)×（1-Yg）］ . Based upon remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS), the NPP of terrestrial vegetation in China in every ten days was calculated, and the annual NPP was integrated. The result showed that the total NPP of terrestrial vegetation in China was 6.13×109 t C·a-1in 1990 and the maximum NPP was 1 812.9 g C/m. According to this result, the spatio-temporal distribution of NPP was analyzed. Comparing to the statistical models, the RS model, using area object other than point one, can better reflect the distribution of NPP , and match the geographic distribution of vegetation in China.
陈利军* 刘高焕 冯险峰
摘要：净第一性生产力(NPP)研究方法很多,运用NOAA-AVHRR的可见光波段、近红外波段和热红外波段来提取和反演地面参数,进而准确估算陆地植被净第一性生产力,是一种全新的研究手段.利用遥感数据进行生物量和净第一性生产力的估算,主要是采用光能利用率模型,即通过NPP与植物吸收的光合有效辐射(APAR)和植物将所吸收的光合有效辐射转化为有机物的转化率(ε)的关系来实现的.用数学公式可表达为: NPP=(FPAR×PAR)×[ε *×σT×σE×σS×(1-Ym)×(1-Yg)]. 在遥感和地理信息系统技术的支持下,以1990年每旬的8 km分辨率的NOAA-AVHRR 1～5通道的影像为数据源,对中国每旬的陆地植被净第一性生产力进行估算,然后累加得出全年的 NPP值.估算结果:1990年中国陆地植被NPP总量为6.13×109 t C·a-1,NP P最高值为1 812.9 g C/m2.根据计算的结果,对中国大陆植被NPP的分布规律进行了分析.遥感模型能够以面代点,比较真实地反映陆地植被NPP的时空分布状况,与中国植被分布的地理规律性相符,这是其他统计模型所无法比拟的.
Four compounds, craniosides A (1) and B (2), mussaenoside (3) and ningpogenin (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Craniotome furcata (Link.) O. Kuntze for the first time. Among them, craniosides A (1) and B (2) were identified as new compounds. The structures of the two new compounds were assigned mainly by spectral methods.
岳建民1 陈绍农1 杨升平1 樊成奇1 林中文2 孙汉董2
（1. 中国科学院上海生命科学研究院药物研究所，上海200031；2. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所，昆明650204）
摘要：首次从簇序草 (Craniotome furcata (Link.) O. Kuntze) 的乙酸乙酯部分分离到化合物cranioside A (1)、 cranioside B (2)、 mussaenoside (3) 和 ningpogenin (4).利用波谱方法(1H-NMR、 13C-NMR 和ESI-MS 等)对这些化合物的结构进行了鉴定.其中1和2为新化合物.
关键词： 簇序草；唇形科；cranioside A 、 cranioside B 、 mussaenoside 和 ningpogenin
egetation evolution in the northern South China Sea region since 40 500 a BP is reconstructed using biomization procedure based on pollen data from deep sea core 17940. The result shows that, it is feasible to reconstruct palaeovegetation using biomization procedure, when pollen, particularly Pinus pollen, transported by wind over long distance is excluded. Results from factor analysis suggest that humidity and temperature are the two main factors determining vegetation evolution on land around the northern South China Sea. From 40 500 a BP to 11 100 a BP, broad-leaved evergreen forest (WAMF), and montane conifers(MGRF) occurred on hills and low mountains; while steppe (STEP) predominated on the exposed shelf. The main feature of the vegetation evolution is the frequent alternation between MGRF (or WAMF) and STEP, implying abrupt changes in millennium scale between humid/cold and dry/temperate climate. All abrupt climate events could be broadly correlated with Henrich events and Dansggard-Oscherge events. One of the events around 12 700 a BP, sees the occurrence of MGRF, suggesting that climate turned humid and cold rapidly. This may be correlated with the Younger Dryas event; Broad-leaved evergreen (WAMF) predominates since 11 000 a BP. During the early Holocene and late Holocene tropical rainforest (TRFO) or tropical seasonal forest (TSFO ) occurred several times.
摘要：就南海北部海域17940孔的孢粉资料,利用孢粉生物群区化方法和因子分析方法,对南海北部周边地区4万年以来的植被演替序列进行研究,结果表明:对于深海沉积物,在排除远距离搬运的花粉尤其是松属(Pinus L.)花粉的噪音后,可以利用孢粉生物群区化方法恢复周边大陆古植被演替序列.因子分析表明,湿度和温度的变化是影响南海北部周边大陆植被演化的主要因子.在40 500～11 100 a BP南海北部沿海大陆地区的古植被,主要为常绿阔叶林(WAMF) ,山地针叶林(MRGF)分布于低山、丘陵;而广泛出露的大陆架上则发育了以蒿属(Artemisia L.)为主的草原(STEP) 景观:末次冰期时环境变化的突出特征山地针叶林(MRGF)、常绿阔叶林(WAMF)与草原(STEP) 之间的频繁交替,反映了气候冷湿和温干的千年级尺度的迅速变化,可以与Heinrich事件以及Dansggard-Oscherge事件进行对比.其中在7.0 m处(12 700 a BP)所恢复的山地针叶林( MRGF)景观反映了一次气候变冷变湿的事件,可能与新仙女木事件相对应.全新世早期和末期较多出现热带雨林(TRFO)以及热带季雨林(TSFO)景观,而全新世中期以常绿阔叶林(WAMF) 为主,缺乏热带雨林(TRFO)以及热带季雨林(TSFO)景观,可能表明在全新世中期尽管温度升高,但湿度有可能降低.
王树才1,2 李国婧1 夏凯1 徐朗莱2 陈溥言3 周燮1*
（1. 南京农业大学农学院，南京210095；2. 南京农业大学理学院，南京210095；#$ 南京农业大学动物医学院，南京210095）
摘要：首次报道了专一识别水杨酸(salicylic acid, SA)的单克隆抗体的制备.该抗体源于以5- 氨基水杨酸(5-ASA)的5位氨基为偶联位点,血蓝蛋白(KLH)为载体合成的SA-NH-CH2-NH- KL H 免疫原.它对 SA 和 5-ASA 具有高亲和力.用该抗体建立了定量测定 SA 的直接酶联免疫吸附测定法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA),其检测范围为 0.02～20 nmol.利用该 SA ELISA,研究了黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)叶片接种丁香假单胞菌(Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall)后 1～ 32 h之间游离态SA含量的动态变化,发现其变化趋势呈双峰曲线.
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