J Integr Plant Biol. ›› 2001, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (4): 419-425.

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Plant Functional Types and Biomes of China at a Regional Scale

NI Jian   

Abstract:

Thirty-nine dominant plant functional types (PFTs) of China were identified based on the present Chinese vegetation types and their distributional pattern using the “eco-physiognomy" principle. They are alpine evergreen conifer, boreal evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen conifer, cool temperate evergreen conifer, temperate evergreen conifer, warm temperate evergreen conifer, tropical evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen broadleaf, cool temperate summergreen broadleaf, temperate summergreen broadleaf, cold warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf,intermediate warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, southern warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, warm-temperate schlerophyllous broadleaf, warm temperate summergreen broadleaf, tropical evergreen broadleaf, tropical raingreen broadleaf, tropical deciduous broadleaf, warm temperate bamboo, alpine/subalpine shrub, temperate steppe shrub, temperate desert shrub, cool temperate shrub, temperate shrub, warm temperate shrub, tropical shrub, xeric shrub, alpine forb, desert forb, temperate steppe grass, temperate grass, sedge, mangrove, boreal crop, cool temperate crop, temperate crop, warm temperate crop, tropical crop, and bare land. Twenty-one potential biomes were then assigned on the basis of dominant PFTs. They are boreal deciduous forest, boreal evergreen forest, cold temperate mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest, warm temperate mixed deciduous-evergreen broadleaf forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen monsoon forest, tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest, tropical deciduous forest, mangrove forest, xeric woodl and/savannas, temperate meadow/savannas, temperate steppe, temperate semi-steppe, temperate desert, temperate semi-desert, alpine/subalpine coniferous forest, alpine/subalpine shrub/meadow, alpine/subalpine steppe, and alpine/subalpine desert. If the agricultural vegetation was taken into account, twenty-five actual biomes including one crop per year, three crops per two years, two crops per year, and three crops per year were assigned. These studies were attempted to lay a foundation of Chinese PFTs and biome classifications at a regional scale for the studies of global ecology and palaeoecology.

区域尺度的中国植物功能型与生物群区
倪健
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京10093)


摘要: 利用“生态%外貌”原则,根据中国的现状植被类型及其分布,确定中国的39 种优势植物功能型:高山常绿针叶、北方常绿针叶、北方夏绿针叶、冷温带常绿针叶、温带常绿针叶、暖温带常绿针叶、热带常绿针叶、北方夏绿阔叶、冷温带夏绿阔叶、温带夏绿阔叶、冷暖温带常绿阔叶、中暖温带常绿阔叶、南暖温带常绿阔叶、暖温带硬叶阔叶、暖温带夏绿阔叶、热带常绿阔叶、热带雨绿阔叶、热带落叶阔叶、暖温带竹、高山/ 亚高山灌木、温带草原灌木、温带荒漠灌木、冷温带灌木、温带灌木、暖温带灌木、热带灌木、干旱灌木、高山草、荒漠草、温带草原草、温带草、沼泽草、红树、北方农作物、冷温带农作物、温带农作物、暖温带农作物、热带农作物和裸地。再依据优势植物功能型归并中国的21类潜在生物群区:北方(寒温带)落叶林、北方(寒温带)常绿林、冷温带针阔叶混交林、温带落叶阔叶林、暖温带(亚热带)落叶常绿阔叶混交林、暖温带(亚热带)常绿阔叶林、暖温带(亚热带)常绿阔叶季风林、热带雨林、热带季雨林、热带落叶林、红树林、干旱疏林/稀树草原、温带草甸/ 稀树草原、温带草原、温带半草原、温带荒漠、温带半荒漠、高山/亚高山针叶林、高山/亚高山灌丛/ 草甸、高山/亚高山草原和高山/ 亚高山荒漠。如果考虑现状农业植被类型:一年一熟农作物、二年三熟农作物、一年二熟农作物和一年三熟农作物,可归并为’( 类现状生物群区。这是全球生态学和古生态学研究中区域尺度上我国植物功能型和生物群区分类的一次尝试。
关键词: 生物群区;优势植物功能型;生态外貌;全球生态学;古生态学

Key words: biome, dominant plant functional types (PFTs), eco-physiognomy, global ecology, palaeoecology

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