Using DGD embedment-free electron microscopy, ultrastructural observation on the intra- and intercellular microtrabecular network (MN) of the pollen mother cells (PMC) of the whole meiotic prophase Ⅰ in onion ( Allium cepa L.) was performed. Complex nuclear MN was observed in the nucleus of PMCs, spreading throughout the nuclear region. The nucleolus and chromosomes were connected with the MN filament network. The uniformity of nuclear MN changed with the development of the PMCs. A lamina-like structure surrounded the nucleus and joined the MN in nucleus and in cytoplasm, but it disassembled at the end of prophase Ⅰ. There was also a complex cytoplasmic MN in PMCs, without obvious variation during the prophase Ⅰ. Furthermore, MN in cytoplasmic connections (plasmodesmata and cytoplasmic channels) was noticed to link the frameworks in two neighboring PMCs into one entity. Cytomixis was observed at synizesis of prophase Ⅰ in this experiment, and MN in cytoplasm and in nucleus was noticed to distribute in these granules which migrated from one PMC into its neighboring cell. At this time the nucleus moved aside from center of the PMC, but the rest of the cell was still fulfilled with MN filaments. The relationships of nuclear MN with nucleolus and chromosomes, lamina with nucleus, as well as intra- and intercellular MN with cytomixis are discussed in this paper.
杨军 余春红 王新宇 郑国锠*
The developmental process of oil cells in the shoot of Litsea pungens Hemsl. has been studied with transmission electron microscopy. According to the development of the three layers of cell wall, the developmental process could be divided into 4 stages. In stage 1, the cell wall consisted only of a primary (the outmost) cellulose layer, which might further be divided into two substages, the oil cell initial, and the vacuolizing oil cell. During this stage, there were some small electron translucent vesicles and dark osmiophilic droplets of variant sizes in the different-shaped plastids. It was observed that some dark and gray osmiophilic materials coalesced to vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In stage 2, a lamellated suberin layer accumulated inside the primary cellulose layer. In stage 3, a thicker and looser inner cellulose wall layer was formed gradually inside the suberin layer. Some dark osmiophilic droplets have been observed in this loose inner cellulose wall layer. The plasmodesmata were blocked up and became a special structure. Then, the big vacuole, which is the oil sac, was full of osmiophilic oil. In stage 4, the oil cell became matured and the cytoplasm disintegrated. The oil sac enveloped from plasmalemma was attached to the cupule, which was formed by the protuberance of the inner cellulose wall layer into the lumen. After the maturity of oil cell, the ground cytoplasm began to disintegrate and became electron opaque or exhibited in a disordered state, and the osmiophilic oil appeared light gray.
（1. 莱阳农学院基础部植物研究室，山东莱阳265200；2. 西北大学植物研究所，西安70069；
The growth of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Armillaria mellea (Vahl. ex Fr.) Quel. shares a special symbiotic relation. In general, A. mellea invades the G. elata , the epidermal cells, the cortical cells and the large cells of the growing vegetative propagation corm of G. elata . The empty cavity cells, the cork cells of the isolation in the vegetative propagation corms and the large cells of G. elata were the defensive structure, protecting the new G. elata from pathological invasion by A. mellea . In winter, G. elata enters the stage of hibernation. The faulting layer derived from the cork cells of the isolation was the last defensive structure by which new G. elata could safely live through the winter.
摘要：天麻（Gastrodia elata Bl.）与蜜环菌（Armilla riamellea (Vahl.ex Fr.)Quel.）营共生生活，在正常情况下蜜环菌只侵染种麻及分化生长出的营养繁殖茎的表皮、皮层及大型细胞层。种麻的大型细胞层及营养繁殖茎隔离区的空腔细胞层和木栓细胞层，都是种麻与新生麻的防御结构，它们保护新生麻不遭蜜环菌病理侵染而正常生长。冬季，天麻进入冬眠期，隔离区的木栓细胞层形成断裂层，此层细胞是新生麻能够安全越冬的最后一道防御结构。
Chromosome counts of three Acorus species ( A. calamus L., A. tatarinowii Schott and A. gramineus Soland.) were performed in the Southwestern China. Both A. tatarinowii and A. gramineus shared the same chromosome numbers 2n=24. Populations of A.calamus in South and Southwestern Yunnan are tetraploids (2n=44) while those in the central and northwestern Yunnan being hexaploids (2n=66). The hexaploids are reported here for the first time. Attention was drawn to the ploidy pattern in A.calamus . It seems that the hexaploids were evolved from their ancestors during the early Tertiary as an impact of orogenesis of the Himalayas.
王红 李文丽 顾志建* 陈永燕
摘要：通过对中国西南部3种菖蒲属(Acorus L.)植物（菖蒲A.calamus L.、石菖蒲A.tatarinowii Schott和金钱蒲A.gramineus Soland.）的细胞学研究，发现分布在云南及四川的9个菖蒲居群中，有5个居群为四倍体(2n=4x=44)，4个居群为六倍体(2n=6x=66)。其中四倍体见于滇南及川西南；六倍体见于滇中及滇西北，并为首次报道。在云南及贵州分布的石菖蒲及金钱蒲5个居群均为二倍体。讨论了菖蒲分布区从二倍体、三倍体、四倍体和六倍体4种不同倍性居群的分布规律和可能的演化关系，六倍体居群的产生很可能与喜马拉雅造山运动有关。
By chromosome C-banding and bi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using digoxigenin-labelled total genomic DNA of Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvel. and biotinylated total genomic DNA of Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur as probes, three wheat-alien lines with L. racemosus Lr.7 addition and H. villosa 6VS/6AL translocated chromosomes, and eight lines with L. racemosus Lr.14 addition and H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocated chromosomes were respectively identified from DALr.7×T6VS/6AL (93G51-4×P64) and DALr.14×T6VS/6AL （94G15×P64）F2 or F3 hybrids. Fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated avidin and rhodamine-conjugated sheep anti-digoxigenin Fab fragment were used in bi-color FISH detection. The chromosomes of L.racemosus and 6VS fragment of H. villosa were simultaneously detected by their red and green fluorescence. Powdery mildew and scab resistance were also evaluated. The result showed that the obtained plants had high resistance to these two diseases. The potential usage of bi-color FISH in identifying chromatin of L.racemosus and H.villosa was discussed.
陈发棣 陈佩度* 王苏玲
Temporal dioecy, a flowering mechanism of synchronous alternation of pistillate and staminate phases in hermaphroditic (bisexual) flowers or monoecious individuals, decreases the probability of self-fertilization in self-compatible (SC) species. The authors report the prevalence of flexistyly in native species of Alpinia Roxb. in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China, resulted in dimorphism with two temporal dioecious floral phenotypes that facilitates out-crossing. Populations of ginger plants Alpinia have two specific phenotypes that differ in flowering behavior: (1)“cataflexistyle”individuals with the stigma held erect beyond dehiscent anther when anthesis begins in the morning and becoming decurved under the anther at noon; (2)“hyperflexistyle” individuals with the receptive stigma decurved under the indehiscent anther first and moving into a reflexed superior position above the anther as it begins to shed pollen at midday. The stigmatic movements in the two floral phenotypes, which occur in a ratio of 1∶1 in natural populations, are synchronous and pollination is effected only between floral forms. Field experiments indicate that species of Alpinia are self-compatible and insect dependent fertilization plants.
李庆军 许再富* 夏永梅 张玲 邓晓保 高江云
摘要：暂时性雌雄异株是一种在两性花或雌雄同株植物个体上表现出的雄蕊和雌蕊成熟时间不同而形成的暂时性雄性阶段和雌性阶段不重叠的现象。这种现象减少了自交亲和的雌雄同株和两性花种类发生自交的可能性。作者系统研究了花柱卷曲性传粉机制在西双版纳姜科山姜属 (Alpinia Roxb .)植物中的普遍性 ,这一机制使得植物通过完全的暂时性雌雄异株达到了异交的目的。这类植物的种群中具有两种独特的表现型 ,其差异表现在开花行为的不同 :柱头下垂型个体在刚开花时其柱头向上反卷 ,位于已开裂的花药上方 ,到中午开始向下运动 ,下午则位于花药下方 ;柱头上举型个体的柱头在开花初期向花冠内卷曲 ,位于未开裂的花药和唇瓣之间 ,中午开始向上运动 ,当柱头上举到花药上方后 ,花药开裂 ,花粉开始散发。两种个体的开花行为是同步的 ,通过两种柱头反向运动这一独特的开花行为 ,植物成功地避免了同种表型内的自交。野外实验表明 ,山姜属植物是自交亲和类群 ,不同的授粉方式 (不同时间的自花和异花授粉 )具有相同的结实率 ,但套袋的花序几乎不结实。两种表型在自然种群中的比例为 1∶1
The growth of etiolated wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Lumai No.22) seedlings and the activation of the cell cycle in embryo cells were estimated by flow cytometric analyses in wheat after the seeds being treated with oligoglucosamine and deoxynivalenol (DON). The results indicated that both the root number in etiolated wheat seedlings and the activation of the cells which had been arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle in wheat embryos were enhanced by oligoglucosamine, suggesting that the mitosis in wheat embryo cells could be promoted by oligoglucosamine. The inhibition of DON on the growth of etiolated wheat seedlings and on the activation of the cell cycle in wheat embryo cells were relieved when the seeds were immersed in oligoglucosamine solution for 12 h before DON treatment. The results indicated that oligoglucosamine increased the hardiness to the poisoning of DON in wheat embryo cells. This might be the reason why such oligosaccharide elicits the resistance of plants to pathogen infection.
刘晓* 杜昱光** 白雪芳
摘要：用壳寡糖和脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)以不同方式处理小麦（Triticum aestivum L.）种子，测定从G 1期启动进入S期和G 2-M期的胚细胞百分率和小麦黄化苗的生长。结果表明：壳寡糖可促进小麦种胚细胞周期启动并促进小麦根数目增加，说明壳寡糖对小麦种子的胚细胞分裂有促进作用；壳寡糖预处理小麦种子可解除DON对小麦黄化苗生长及胚细胞启动的抑制作用，表明寡聚糖可提高植物对病原菌毒素的抗耐性，这可能是寡聚糖诱导植物提高抗病性的重要机制之一。
Under a suitable condition of crystallization, dark brown short rhombohedron crystals could be obtained from nitrogenase MnFe protein purified from a mutant UW3 of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann grown in Mn-containing but Mo- and NH3-free medium. The possibility of crystallization, and number,size and quality of crystals were obviously dependent on concentrations of NaCl,MgCl2, PEG 8000,Tris and Hepes buffer and on methods for crystallization. PEG concentration affected on the shape of the crystals.The optimal concentrations of the chemicals for crystallization of MnFe protein were slightly different from those for crystallization of ΔnifZ MoFe protein from a nifZ deleted strain of Azotobacter vinelandii . SDS-PAGE showed that the protein from the dissolved crystals was almost the same as MnFe protein before crystallization, indicating that the crystal was formed from MnFe protein.
黄巨富1董志刚1汪道涌1吕玉兵1 张华峰1王耀萍2韩毅2 代小虎2
（1. 中国科学院植物研究所，北京100093；2. 中国科学院生物物理研究所，北京100101）
摘要：从以Mn代钼的固氮培养基中固氮生长的固氮菌(Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann)突变种UW3中分离纯化的MnFe蛋白，在一定的结晶条件下，可从溶液中析出深棕色的短斜四棱柱晶体。Tris和Hepes缓冲液、NaCl、MgCl2和PEG的浓度及结晶方法等，对该蛋白的出晶率、晶核数目、晶体大小和质量均有明显的影响，PEG浓度的改变还可使该蛋白晶体的晶型发生变化。MnFe蛋白结晶所需的上述化合物的最适浓度与缺失nifZ固氮菌突变种ΔnifZ MoFe蛋白结晶所需的最适浓度有所不同。SDS凝胶电泳表明，晶体溶解后的蛋白与结晶前的MnFe蛋白基本相同。结果表明，该晶体为MnFe蛋白的晶体。
In order to understand the role of active oxygen species in mediating plant injuries induced by far-UV radiation, seedlings of Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. were irradiated by far-UV rays in laboratory for 4 weeks. The production of organic free-radicals in detached needles, and the production of O-·2 and 1O2 in isolated chloroplasts were detected weekly by electron spin resonance (ESR) to evaluate their relative importance. The results show that the cumulative effect of far-UV irradiation, is best indicated by the production of organic free radicals in the needles, O-·2 production in chloroplasts is the next. The enhancement of 1O2 production in chloroplasts by the cumulative far-UV irradiation seems to be not so important as O-·2 in mediating injuries induced by far-UV radiation because of its high background value.
靳月华1 杜英君1 刘桂珍2
（1. 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所，沈阳110015；2. 中国科学院长春应用化学研究所，长春1
摘要：为了解活性氧和自由基在介导远紫外辐射对植物伤害上的作用 ,在实验室内用远紫外线源对紫杉 (Taxuscuspidata Sieb .etZucc .)苗进行了 4周的辐射处理。每周取样 ,对针叶的有机自由基及离体叶绿体的O-·2 和1O2 分别进行了电子自旋共振 (ESR)检测 ,以了解它们各自的相对重要性。结果表明针叶的有机自由基水平最能说明远紫外辐射剂量的积累效应。其次是叶绿体产生的O-·2 。叶绿体产生的1O2 也随辐照时间的增加而略有增加 ,但由于本底数值过高 ,它在介导远紫外辐射引起的伤害上可能不如O-·2 重要
Water transport at the root/soil interface of 1 year old Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. sylvestriformis (Takenouchi) Cheng et C. D. Chu seedlings under CO2 doubling was studied by measuring soil electric conductance to survey soil water profiles and comparing it with root distribution surveyed by soil coring and root harvesting in Changbai Mountain in 1999. The results were: (1) The profiles of soil water content were adjusted by root activity. The water content of the soil layer with abundant roots was higher. (2) When CO2 concentration was doubled, water transport was more active at the root/soil interface and the roots were distributed into deeper layer. It was shown in this work that the method of measuring electric conductance is an inexpensive, non-destructive and relatively sensitive way for underground water transport process.
韩士杰 张军辉 周玉梅 王琛瑞 邹春静
CuSO4 was added into Hoagland solution to imitate Cu2+ polluted water environment, and the roles of the two antioxidation systems in resisting Cu2+ stress in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. was studied. The results showed that Cu2+pollution less than 70 mg/L in concentration could stimulate the accumulation of superoxide radical (O-·2), thus lead to lipid peroxidation and increase of membrane permeability. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were both induced in high level and took important parts in antioxidation at higher concentration of Cu2+ and in middle and late phases of Cu2+ stress. Catalase (CAT) had little effect. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was induced in lower level and showed its function in lower Cu2+ concentration and in early phase. Ascorbic acid (AsA) could also function at higher Cu2+ concentration by transition from reduced state to oxidized state.
周长芳* 吴国荣 施国新 陆长梅 顾龚平 宰学明 魏锦城
关键词： 水花生；抗氧化系统；Cu2+ 胁迫
Three deletion mutants of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 54-kD putative replicase gene (54K) were obtained by PCR, and cloned into plant expression vector p208, then transformed into Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn Ti plasmid-mediated transformation. All the transgenic plants with the N-terminal deletion mutant, the C-terminal deletion mutant and the only 261 nucleotides region from the central part of the 54K ORF showed significant resistance against TMV.
TMV 54K基因的3 个突变体介导抗病性的研究
安利忻 刘一飞 陈章良 李 毅*
摘要：利用PCR方法分别构建了烟草花叶病毒(TMV)中一个推测为复制酶的54-kD蛋白基因(54K)缺失N端、C端和仅余基因中部261bp的3个缺失突变体，与野生型54K一起克隆入植物中间载体p208，并通过根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacteriumtumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn)介导的方法转化烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)。用TMV侵染转基因植物的R0代和R1代，结果显示这3个缺失突变体均能介导对TMV的抗病性。
The integration plasmid pKSB was constructed by inserting a special recombination target, psbB, into multiple cloning site (MCS) of pBluescript KS. The fragment psbB is part of psbB gene (from #693 bp to #2563 bp) from Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803. Human liver metallothionein mutant gene ββ chemically synthesized was inserted into downstream of the promoter PpsbA on the intermediary vector pRL-439. The expression vector pKSB-ββ was constructed by inserting PpsbA as well as ββ gene into MCS of pKSB and was transferred into Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The stable transgenic strain has been obtained by raising concentration of ampicillin gradually in the process of selection. The results of PCR analysis indicated that ββ gene has been integrated in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 chromosome DNA by single-crossover events. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that the ββgene was expressed in the transgenic strain with an amount of 0.739 mg/g fresh cells. Cu2+ tolerance experiments proved that the transgenic strain had higher Cu2+-resistance. Atomic absorption demonstrated that 82% of Cu2+could be removed by the transgenic strain when cultured in BG11 medium containing 10 μmol/L Cu2+ for 3 d.
宋凌云1,2施定基2 宁叶1 罗娜1 邵宁2 俞梅敏1 茹炳根1
（1. 北京大学生命科学学院，北京100871；2. 中国科学院植物研究所，北京100093）
摘要：将集胞藻 (Synechocystis sp .)PCC 6 80 3上psbB的一段序列 (从 # 6 93bp到 # 2 5 6 3bp)插入pBluescript KS的多克隆位点 ,构建带有整合平台的载体pKSB。再将人工合成的 ββ基因插入中间载体pRL-439上启动子PpsbA的下游 ,并将pRL-ββ上PpsbA和 ββ基因插入pKSB构建成整合表达载体pKSB-ββ。利用自然转化将整合表达载体导入集胞藻 6 80 3,并通过单交换同源重组使 ββ基因整合到集胞藻 6 80 3基因组DNA上。逐步提高氨苄青霉素浓度 ,筛选得到遗传性状稳定的转基因集胞藻 6 80 3。PCR检测转基因集胞藻 6 80 3,结果证实 ββ基因已整合到集胞藻 6 80 3的染色体上 ;Westernblotting结果表明 ,ββ基因在转基因集胞藻 6 80 3细胞中得到表达 ,ELISA测定表明在 5 0 μmol/L的Zn2 +诱导下 ββ在新鲜集胞藻 6 80 3中的蛋白表达量为 0 .739mg/g ;重金属耐受性实验表明 ,得到能耐受Cu2 +的转基因集胞藻 6 80 3。经原子吸收光谱法测定 ,转基因集胞藻6803在含低浓度Cu2+ (10umol/L)的培养液中对Cu2+的去除率可达到82%
To investigate the effect of matrix attachment regions (MARs) on levels of transgene expression in transgenic plants, β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA ) was flanked by the MARs isolated from the genome of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) to form plant expression vector. The plant expression vectors with and without MARs were transferred into tobaccos ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation procedure. The results of GUS activity showed that MARs could increase levels of uidA gene expression, the mean GUS activity could be increased two fold compared with that of transformants without MARs, the highest GUS activity of transformant could arrive at five fold.
李旭刚 路子显 陈蕾 肖桂芳 朱祯*
摘要：为研究核基质结合区 (matrixattachmentregions,MARs)在转基因植物中对外源转基因 (transgene)表达的影响 ,将来源豌豆 (Pisumsativum L .)的MARs序列构建在报告基因 β-葡糖醛酸酶 (β-glucuronidase ,GUS)基因 (uidA)的两侧形成植物表达载体。将此载体与不包含MARs序列的植物表达载体经根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacteriumtumefaciens(SmithetTownsend)Conn)介导转化烟草 (Nicotianatabacum L .)。GUS活性检测表明 ,MARs可以提高外源uidA基因的表达水平。和不包含MARs的转化植株相比 ,MARs序列的存在可以使uidA基因的平均表达水平提高 2倍 ,最高的可达 5倍
Genetic structure of four populations in Castanopsis fargesii Franch. in Fujian Province was studied with microsatellite (SSR) markers. A high level of genetic variation was detected in the populations of C. fargesii by using SSR with A=9.0, Ne=4.8, He=0.65 and the population differentiation coefficient ( Fst ) was only 0.031. The distributions of alleles of all loci were significantly different among the populations of C. fargesii , and the population differentiation could be found according to the distributions of SSR alleles. Some rare alleles in the populations of C. fargesii were revealed by SSR: Fifteen of 54 alleles appeared in one or two populations with lower frequencies; conservation of these rare alleles is of great importance.
徐立安* 李新军* 潘惠新 邹惠渝 尹佟明 黄敏仁*
摘要：利用微卫星（SSR）分子标记对福建省内4个栲树（Castanopsis fargesiiFranch.）群体遗传结构进行了研究。SSR标记揭示了栲树群体丰富的遗传变异：平均等位基因数A=9.0，平均有效等位基因数N e=4.8，平均期望杂合度He=0.65，而群体具有较低的Fst值（F st=0.031）。SSR每个位点的等位基因频率分布在栲树群体间都存在显著或极显著差异，表明根据SSR等位基因频率分布亦能了解群体的分化。SSR标记使栲树群体中一些稀有等位基因得以表现，54个SSR等位基因中有15个等位基因仅出现在1个或2个群体中，且频率较低，在遗传多样性保护中更应注重保护这些稀有的等位变异。
Cleistogenes squarrosa ((Trin.) Keng) is a C4 plant and a short, perennial grass with drought tolerance that tends to occupy the medium degradation grassland in Inner Mongolia steppe. It is an ideal plant suitable for the studies on compensation or over-compensation growth because its important value of population is the maximum in the medium disturbance in Inner Mongolia steppe. The results showed that the over-compensation existed for net primary productivity (NPP) of Cleistogenes squarrosa population because the plant morphotypes remaining in the population were characterized by a higher density with small individual plant in moderate stocking rate (1.33 sheep·hm-2 during 138 days of growth seasons). As for an individual plant, grazing reduced the height and biomass per plant, but the above-ground net photosynthesis efficiency or above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) was increased and it almost did not affect the below-ground net primary productivity (BNPP) in the moderate stocking rate. However, the lower compensation of ANPP was a greater cost with BNPP in heavy stocking rate (>4.00 sheep·hm-2 during 138 days of growth season). From this study, it appears that the plant-herbivore association might be regarded as mutualistic in moderate grazing because not only the ANPP of the population was increased, but also was the efficiency of herbage utilization. However, the compensation of ANPP was attained at the cost of BNPP, therefore, the association between plant and herbivore might trade-off in heavy grazing because the temporary higher efficiency of herbage utilization could not keep the sustainable development of the population. The results support the grazing optimization hypothesis.
摘要：糙隐子草(Cleistogeness quarrosa (Trin.)Keng)是研究草原植物在放牧利用条件下补偿性生长及其机制的较理想的实验材料。通过对该草生产力的形成及其构成的研究表明,在适牧条件下,糙隐子草种群明显地存在超补偿性生长。适牧可以刺激糙隐子草个体地上净光合效率,而地下净光合效率不受影响;但在高强度牧食下,糙隐子草个体则通过降低地下生产力的生产来达到地上较低的补偿性生产。糙隐子草种群的超补偿性生长主要是形成小株丛和高密度的种群结构以适应较贫瘠的生境条件。因此,糙隐子草与食草动物的关系,在适牧条件下可能是互惠的,即既可提高牧草的光合效率和利用效率,又可提高动物的生产；而在重牧条件下，可能是交换的，对牧草是以降低地下生产而获得地上生产的；对食草动物，也只能是暂时较高比例的利用牧草。这种“互惠”和“交换”的关系较好地支持了放牧优化假设。
Thirty-nine dominant plant functional types (PFTs) of China were identified based on the present Chinese vegetation types and their distributional pattern using the “eco-physiognomy" principle. They are alpine evergreen conifer, boreal evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen conifer, cool temperate evergreen conifer, temperate evergreen conifer, warm temperate evergreen conifer, tropical evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen broadleaf, cool temperate summergreen broadleaf, temperate summergreen broadleaf, cold warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf,intermediate warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, southern warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, warm-temperate schlerophyllous broadleaf, warm temperate summergreen broadleaf, tropical evergreen broadleaf, tropical raingreen broadleaf, tropical deciduous broadleaf, warm temperate bamboo, alpine/subalpine shrub, temperate steppe shrub, temperate desert shrub, cool temperate shrub, temperate shrub, warm temperate shrub, tropical shrub, xeric shrub, alpine forb, desert forb, temperate steppe grass, temperate grass, sedge, mangrove, boreal crop, cool temperate crop, temperate crop, warm temperate crop, tropical crop, and bare land. Twenty-one potential biomes were then assigned on the basis of dominant PFTs. They are boreal deciduous forest, boreal evergreen forest, cold temperate mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest, warm temperate mixed deciduous-evergreen broadleaf forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen monsoon forest, tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest, tropical deciduous forest, mangrove forest, xeric woodl and/savannas, temperate meadow/savannas, temperate steppe, temperate semi-steppe, temperate desert, temperate semi-desert, alpine/subalpine coniferous forest, alpine/subalpine shrub/meadow, alpine/subalpine steppe, and alpine/subalpine desert. If the agricultural vegetation was taken into account, twenty-five actual biomes including one crop per year, three crops per two years, two crops per year, and three crops per year were assigned. These studies were attempted to lay a foundation of Chinese PFTs and biome classifications at a regional scale for the studies of global ecology and palaeoecology.
摘要： 利用“生态%外貌”原则，根据中国的现状植被类型及其分布，确定中国的39 种优势植物功能型：高山常绿针叶、北方常绿针叶、北方夏绿针叶、冷温带常绿针叶、温带常绿针叶、暖温带常绿针叶、热带常绿针叶、北方夏绿阔叶、冷温带夏绿阔叶、温带夏绿阔叶、冷暖温带常绿阔叶、中暖温带常绿阔叶、南暖温带常绿阔叶、暖温带硬叶阔叶、暖温带夏绿阔叶、热带常绿阔叶、热带雨绿阔叶、热带落叶阔叶、暖温带竹、高山/ 亚高山灌木、温带草原灌木、温带荒漠灌木、冷温带灌木、温带灌木、暖温带灌木、热带灌木、干旱灌木、高山草、荒漠草、温带草原草、温带草、沼泽草、红树、北方农作物、冷温带农作物、温带农作物、暖温带农作物、热带农作物和裸地。再依据优势植物功能型归并中国的21类潜在生物群区：北方（寒温带）落叶林、北方（寒温带）常绿林、冷温带针阔叶混交林、温带落叶阔叶林、暖温带（亚热带）落叶常绿阔叶混交林、暖温带（亚热带）常绿阔叶林、暖温带（亚热带）常绿阔叶季风林、热带雨林、热带季雨林、热带落叶林、红树林、干旱疏林/稀树草原、温带草甸/ 稀树草原、温带草原、温带半草原、温带荒漠、温带半荒漠、高山/亚高山针叶林、高山/亚高山灌丛/ 草甸、高山/亚高山草原和高山/ 亚高山荒漠。如果考虑现状农业植被类型：一年一熟农作物、二年三熟农作物、一年二熟农作物和一年三熟农作物，可归并为’( 类现状生物群区。这是全球生态学和古生态学研究中区域尺度上我国植物功能型和生物群区分类的一次尝试。
Two new sterols, 3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5,22-diene (1), 3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5-ene (2), were isolated together with six known compounds, ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7α-diol (3), ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7β,16β-triol (4), β-amyrone (5), β-amyrin (6), 11α,12α-epoxy-14-taraxeren-3-one (7), and 6-guaiene-4α,10α-diol (8) from the EtOH extract of the bark of Amoora yunnanensis (H. L. Li) C. Y. Wu. Their structures were deduced on the basis of spectral data.
罗晓东 吴少华 马云保 吴大刚*
摘要： 从云南崖摩(Amoora yunnanensis (H.L.Li)C.Y.Wu.)树皮的乙醇提取物中分离得到8个化合物，通过波谱方法鉴定它们分别是:3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5,22-diene(1)、3β,7α,16β-trihydroxy-stigmast-5-ene(2)、ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7α-diol(3)、ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3β,7β,16β-triol(4)、β-amyrone(5)、β-amyrin(6)、11α,12α-epoxy-14-taraxeren-3-one(7)和6-guaiene-4α,10α-diol(8)。其中1和2为新化合物。
From the methanol extract of the whole plant of Schnabelia oligophylla Hand.-Mazz. (Lamiaceae), a new cyclic octopeptide, named schnabepeptide (1), was isolated by silica gel chromatography. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and the absolute configuration of the amino acid units, except for proline and glycine, were assigned by chiral HPLC analysis. Bio-assay showed that schnabepeptide (1) exhibited an immunosuppression activity on T/B lymphocytes. Along with the new compound, seven known compounds, octadeca-9,16-dioxo-10(E),12(Z),14(E)-trienoic acid (2), 12,16-epoxy-11,14-dihydroxy-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-abieta-3,5,8,11,13,15-hexene-2,7-dione (teuvincenone F, 3), abscisic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), daucosterol (6), stigmasteryl 3-O-β- D -glucopyranoside (7) and palmitic acid (8), were also isolated from this plant.
周燕 王明奎 彭树林 丁立生*
摘要：从四棱草（Schnabelia oligophylla Hand.-Mazz.）全草的甲醇提取物中分离得到一个新的环八肽，命名为四棱草环肽（1）。用波谱方法鉴定了1的结构，并通过HPLC手性柱分析指定了除脯氨酸和甘氨酸外的氨基酸的绝对构型。活性实验显示,四棱草环肽（1）对T/B淋巴细胞有免疫抑制作用。另外，从该植物中还分离鉴定了7个已知化合物。
卢善 发赵华燕* 魏建华 宋艳茹**
摘要：初步建立了三倍体毛白杨(Populus tomentosa Carr.)组织培养再生系统。组织培养时，外植体最好选用在弱光下从休眠芽上萌发的幼芽或嫩茎，经HgCl2溶液表面消毒后，接种到大量元素减半、含0.25mg/L吲哚乙酸和1.00mg/L玉米素的MS培养基上。试管苗的生根可采用含0.25mg/L吲哚丁酸和10mg/L维生素B1的MS培养基。试管苗茎段的分化依无性系和外源激素条件的不同而异。无性系B19的茎段较易分化，而无性系B304和B331分化较难。最适的分化培养基为大量元素减半、含0.05～0.10mg/L吲哚乙酸和1.00mg/L玉米素的MS培养基。
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