Recent advances in studies of genetic variation at protein and DNA levels in plant natural populations and its relationship with environmental changes were reviewed with special reference to the works on the wild barley ( Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.). On one side, adaptation was shown in statistic data, on the other side, the fact that a considerable part of genetic variation does exist within populations (subpopulations) under same ecological condition indicated its maintainability of neutral or near-neutral mutations in natural populations. The researches on adaptive populations of plants, especially on wild soybean ( Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) mainly conducted in author's laboratory, have shown that the most part of molecular variation within and among populations can not be explained by selection particularly as far as the individual uniqueness was concerned. There are some data shown that adaptation may be caused by accumulation of a few near-neutral mutations. Recent publications on molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution has been received special attention to elucidate the discrepancy between molecular evolution and morphological adaptive evolution. A frame on the unified evolution theory has been built. Finally some related viewpoints of philosophy were discussed.
The green wood of yezo species (Picea jezoensis var. komarovii (V. Vassil.) Cheng et L. K. Fu) was treated with air drying and ethanol exchange drying and by soaking the air-dried wood in water followed by ethanol change drying. The results showed that the proportion of aspirated pits in the respective earlywood and latewood of the air-dried sapwood was increased to 99% and 81%, while that of heartwood was also as high as 97% and 86% because most of the bordered pits were aspirated at its green state. The permeability of air-dried sapwood and heartwood was as low as 0.114 and 0.045 darcy respectively. The proportion of aspirated pits in the earlywood and latewood of sapwood after ethanol exchange drying was very low (8% and 17% respectively), whereas that of heartwood was very high (97% and 86% respectively) since most of the pits in it were aspirated at its green state, so the ethanol exchange drying failed to prevent pit aspiration. The permeability of sapwood and heartwood after ethanol exchange drying was 11.713 and 0.074 darcy respectivly, which was increased 101.5 times and 62.0% over the permeability at air-dried state. t-test showed that the difference of permeability of ethanol exchange drying versus air drying for sapwood was very significant at the level of 0.1%, but was not significant for heartwood. The proportion of aspirated pits in earlywood and latewood of air-dried sapwood and heartwood after soaking in water followed by ethanol exchange drying was decreased by 18% and 22%, and 0 and 17%, respectively, while the permeability of sapwood and heartwood was 0.439 and 0.060 darcy respectively, which was increased by 85% and 49% respectively. The permeability difference of soaking sapwood and heartwood versus their controls was very significant at the 0.1% level by t-test.
鲍甫成 吕建雄 赵有科
摘要：通过对长白鱼鳞云杉(Picea jezoensis var.komarovii(V.Vassil.)ChengetL.K.Fu)生材分别进行气干处理和酒精置换处理以及对其气干材进行水浸后再用酒精置换处理，研究了此3种处理方法形成不同的纹孔塞位置对木材渗透性的影响。结果表明，边材和心材的生材经气干处理后，其中边材的早材和晚材纹孔闭塞率增加至99%和81%，而心材因为其纹孔塞在立木时就已发生偏移，其早材和晚材纹孔闭塞率亦高，分别为97%和86%；由于其绝大多数纹孔塞偏离中央位置，气体渗透性较低，边材和心材分别为0.114和0.045darcy。生材经酒精置换处理后，使绝大多数纹孔塞保持中央位置，其中边材的早材和晚材纹孔闭塞率低，分别为8%和17%，而心材因为绝大部分纹孔在立木时即已为关闭状态，酒精置换处理以降低其闭塞率无效，故其纹孔闭塞率高，分别为97%和86%；此种状态下边材和心材的气体渗透性分别为11.713和0.074darcy，比普通气干处理状态下的渗透性分别增加101.5倍和62.0%，t检验表明，前者差异非常显著，但后者差异不显著。气干材经水浸处理后再用酒精置换处理，其边材的早材和晚材纹孔闭塞率分别降低了18％和22％，心材分别降低了0和17％；其气体渗透性分别为0.439和0.060darcy，较处理前分别增加约85％和49％，t检验表明差异均显著。
The relationship between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and endopeptidase（EP） in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yanmai 158) leaves was studied during natural and artificial aging. Rapid accumulation of endogenous H2O2 and marked increase of EP activity were observed during the later phase of aging. A new EP isozyme with higher activity was detected by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels containing denatured heamoglobin. With the increase of exogenous H2O2, the activity of EP increased at first and then decreased.
张志刚 芮琪 徐朗莱
摘要： 研究了H202和蛋白水解酶在小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .cv.Yanmai15 8)叶片老化过程中的关系。小麦叶片老化期间 ,H202含量高的叶片中内肽酶活力也高。老化后期 ,内源H202迅速累积 ,内肽酶活力迅速上升 ;通过内肽酶同工酶电泳可检测到新增一种活力较强的内肽酶。用外源H202处理全展旗叶的内肽酶粗提液 ,随着H202浓度的升高 ,内肽酶活力先上升后下降。
Oral vaccines produced by transgenic plants would change the traditional means of production and inoculation of vaccines and the cost of vaccine production would be reduced greatly. In the experiments, hypocotyls and cotyledons of carrot (Daucus carota L.var.sativa)were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn LBA4404 containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Zopf) Lehmann et Neumann MPT64 gene under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. After two days coculture, the explants were transferred to MS selection media which contained different concentrations of kanamycin and carbenicillin. The regenerated plants with kanamycin resistance were obtained through somatic embryogenesis from the embryogenic calli formed on the selection media. Some of the plants have been transplanted and grew well in phytotron. PCR and Southern blot analyses of carrot DNA confirmed that the MPT64 gene has been introduced into the plant genome. The results of Western blot showed that the MPT64 protein have been expressed in some transgenic plants. Therefore, the transgenic plants should provide a valuable tool for the development of edible oral vaccines.
王凌健 倪迪安 陈永宁 李忠明*
摘要: 利用转基因植物生产研制疫苗，不但可以改变传统的疫苗生产方式和接种手段，而且会大大降低疫苗的生产成本。以胡萝卜(Daucus carota L.var.sativa)无菌幼苗的子叶和下胚轴为外植体，通过携带有35S启动的结核杆菌（Mycobacterium tuberculosis（Zopf）Lehmann et Neumann）分泌蛋白MPT64基因的根癌壤杆菌（Agrobacterium tumefaciens(Smith et Townsend)Conn）LBA4404的介导进行转化，在筛选培养基上诱导形成抗性愈伤组织，经胚状体发生途径分化得到抗性苗，植株移栽后生长情况正常。经PCR 和Southerm 等方法鉴定，确认结核杆菌分泌蛋白MPT64基因已整合到胡萝卜的染色体中。Western 检测结果表明，在转基因胡萝卜的蛋白质中含有MPT64 分泌蛋白，为进一步研究利用转基因植物研制口服疫苗和防治肺结核的新型疫苗提供了新材料。
关键词： 转基因胡萝卜；口服疫苗；结核杆菌MPT64 分泌蛋白
A cDNA library was constructed with the heat shocked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flowers and then was screened with the probes of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum conservative regions that were cloned by using RT-PCR. The complete cDNAs of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum small heat shock protein ( shsp ) were selected out from the cDNA library. Furthermore, the temperature responses of these shsp genes were determined. Northern hybridization showed that the heat response temperatures of both genes in tomato flower were lower than that in leaf and that mitochondria shsp in leaf was cold-inducible. In this paper, the molecular features of the cloned genes, the causes of the uncommon heat response temperatures of sHSP in flower and the cold inducible character of mitochondria shsp gene in leaf were discussed.
（1. 山东师范大学生物系，济南250000；2. 日本国际农业研究中心，冲绳石垣市）
摘要：以热激处理的番茄（Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.）花为实验材料，构建了cDNA文库，运用RT-PCR方法克隆番茄线粒体和内质网小分子热激蛋白cDNA保守区片段，利用这两个保守区片段为探针，筛选cDNA文库，获得线粒体和内质网小分子热激蛋白全序列cDNA通过分析线粒体和内质网小分子热激蛋白基因对温度的反应，发现小分子热激蛋白基因在番茄花中的热激应答温度低于它们在叶片中的热激应答温度，并且番茄叶片中的线粒体小分子热激蛋白基因还具有低温应答特性对线粒体和内质网小分子热激蛋白基因的分子结构特点、小分子热激蛋白基因在番茄花中的特别热激应答温度的调控机理以及线粒体小分子热激蛋白基因在叶片中的低温应答成因进行了讨论
Variation of two simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the leader region of the waxy gene was analyzed in a sample of 74 accessions, including Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, japonica and wild rice ( O.rufipogon) representing a wide distribution range of amylose content (AC) in cultivated rice. Eight alleles were detected in the (CT)n motif and two alleles were resolved in the (AATT)n motif. The distribution of the alleles of the two SSRs was quite uneven as detected by the (CT)n motif. The repeat numbers of the two SSR motifs, (CT)n and (AATT)n, appeared to be inversely related such that the total length of this region was maintained. AC of the varieties was highly correlated with the length of SSRs. Differences in AC among the various SSR genotypes were statistically highly significant as analyzed using genotypes of both SSR motifs. Although the SSR variation did not seem to have obvious function in the synthesis of the starch synthase encoded by the waxy gene, the almost perfect correlation between the two SSRs and AC level could be used for quality improvement in rice breeding programs.
The fingerprints of 21 domestic and 11 foreign sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes were generated using RAPD method. Twenty-five primers were screened from 80 ten-bp arbitrary primers, and a total of 188 DNA fragments were amplified ranging from 0.26-1.98 kb, among which 164 (87.2%) were polymorphic. The average number of DNA band produced by each primer was 7.52. The result of genetic similarity analysis for 32 sunflower genotypes showed that the Nei's coefficient ranged from 0.398 7-0.853 1, and the average Nei's coefficient was 0.6281. The Nei's coefficient of the 11 foreign sunflower genotypes ranged from 0.713 4-0.853 1, and the average Nei's coefficient was 0.782 8, suggesting that there was a close genetic relationship between them and a rich genetic polymorphism among the 21 domestic sunflower genotypes due to the Nei's coefficient (0.475 0-0.8206) and the average Nei's coefficient (0.6478). A DNA molecular dendrogram was established for 32 sunflower genotypes based on UPGMA cluster analysis of 188 DNA bands amplified by 25 primers, which divided the 32 sunflower genotypes into two groups: group A and group B. Group A divided into subgroups A1 and A2. A1 included 12 genotypes, viz., X10, Shaanxi sunflower, D-S12, Changling sunflower 6, Hei2-S2-2, T-C08, Changling sunflower 4, Baikui No.3, BH-10, J-S-B1, Zhangyebaizikui, C101-S4-3S4; A2 subgroup included 9 genotypes, viz., LK305-S8, LK, CS-7, Changling sunflower S2-S2, Huinan7-S1-3, Huinan, CY-XX19-XX2, Jikui 112, and Jikui 116. Group B was divided into subgroups B1 and B2. B1 included 10 France genotypes, viz., LG12028Q, LG9023R, CRN1435, SF9903, SF9902, S-3322, SH332, SH41, SF9001, CRN1445; B2 included only one genotype G101, which came from the USA.
刘 杰 莫结胜 刘公社* 齐冬梅 李芳芳
摘要: 采用RAPD方法对我国 2 1个向日葵 (Helianthusannuus L .)基因型和 11个国外引进向日葵基因型进行分析 ,构建了它们的指纹图谱。从 80个随机引物中筛选出的 2 5个有效引物共产生 188条DNA片段 ,大小分布在 0 .2 6～1.98kb之间 ,其中 16 4条带具有遗传多态性 ,约占总数的 87.2 % ,平均每个引物扩增的DNA带数为 7.5 2条。 32个向日葵的遗传相似性分析表明 ,各基因型间的Nei氏相似性系数分布在 0 .3987～ 0 .85 3 1之间 ,平均相似性系数为0 .6 2 81。 11个国外向日葵基因型的Nei氏相似性系数分布在 0 .713 4～ 0 .85 3 1之间 ,平均相似性系数为 0 .782 8,说明国外基因型之间的遗传基础比较狭窄。 2 1个国内向日葵基因型的Nei氏相似性系数分布在 0 .475 0～ 0 .82 0 6 ,平均相似性系数为 0 .6 478,说明国内向日葵基因型之间的遗传多态性较为丰富。通过非加权算术平均数聚类(UPGMA)的方法 ,绘制出了 32个向日葵基因型之间的遗传关系树图。 32个向日葵基因型明显地聚成A、B两大类群。 2 1个国内向日葵基因型聚成了A1、A2两个亚类 ,A1组包括 :X10、陕西向日葵、D-S12 、长岭向日葵 6、黑 2-S2-2 、T-C0 8、长岭葵花 4、白葵 3号、BH-10、J-S-B1、张掖白子葵、C10 1-S4 3S4 等 12个基因型 ;A2组包括 :LK30 5-S8、LK、CS-7、长岭葵花S2-S2、辉南7-S1-3、辉南、CY-XX19-XX2、吉葵112、吉葵116等9个基因型。11个国外向日葵基因型划分为B1、B2两个亚类，B1组包括LG12028Q、LG9023R、CRN1435、SF9903、SF9902、S-3322、SH332、SH41、SF9001、CRN1445等10个法国基因型；B2组只有来自美国的G101一个材料。
The use of the RAPD technique was investigated on a set of 73 genotypes of 18 wild grape species native to China, and one interspecific hybrid, seven Vitis vinifera L. cultivars, one rootstock cultivar and one strain of V. riparia L. Genetic diversity among these grapes was investigated based on RAPD analysis. The screening of 280 decamer oligonucleotides allowed the selection of 20 primers used for the analysis. A total of 191 RAPD markers were produced from the 20 selected primers. Relationships among the 83 clones or accessions based on their genetic distances were clustered using unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis in a dendrogram. Twenty-two clusters which fortunately adapted to 22 grape species level were clearly resolved on the dendrogram. The 18 wild grape species native to China were grouped into ten subclusters. The largest distance was found between V. riparia L., V. vinifera L., interspecific hybrid ( V. vinifera L.× V. larbrusca L.) and the wild grapes native to China. Among the wild grapes native to China, the largest distance was found between V. hancockii Hance and the other wild species. V. qinlingensis P.C.He was the second. Large genetic variation occurred among the different flower-type clones in one species.
罗素兰1,2 贺普超2 郑学勤3 周 鹏3
（1. 海南大学农学院，海口570228；2. 西北农业大学园艺系，杨凌712100；
摘要： 以起源于中国的 18个野生葡萄种 (73个株系 )、1个欧美杂交种、7个欧洲葡萄品种、1个砧木品种和河岸葡萄 (Vitisriparia L .)一个品系为试材 ,利用RAPD技术研究了中国野生葡萄的遗传多样性。从 2 80个随机引物中筛选出 2 0个多态性好的引物扩增供试材料 ,产生了 191条多态性带。应用UPGMA聚类方法 (类平均法 ) ,获得了 83份材料的遗传距离矩阵及聚类分析树系图 ,且聚为 2 2类 12组。河岸葡萄、欧洲葡萄 (V .vinifera L .)及欧美杂种与中国野葡萄亲缘关系较远。在中国野葡萄中 ,菱叶葡萄 (V .hancockii Hance)与其他种的亲缘关系最远 ,秦岭葡萄 (V .qinlingensis P .C .He)次之。并可将中国野葡萄资源的 18个种、变种和类型分为 10组。种内不同花型株系间的遗传变异较大。
The blue-grained wheat substitution line (blue 58) originated from wild hybridization between Triticum aestivum L. and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Beauv= Elytrigia elongatum (Host) Nevski= Thinopyrum ponticum (Host) Barkworth and Dewey (2n=10x=70) was irradiated and four translocation lines were screened by fluorescence in situ hybridization from the offsprings. The results obtained include the following: (1) both the two translocation lines, 9906 and 9902, have 42 chromosomes. The length of the translocated blue-grained segment was approximately one-third of the short-arm and one-half of the long-arm of the translocated wheat chromosome in 9906 and 9902, respectively, and the blue-grained translocated segment in 9902 was located on D genome; (2) both 9915 and 9904 have 44 chromosomes. One pair of chromosomes was translocated and two chromosomes from Th. ponticum were added in 9903, while two pairs of chromosomes were translocated in 9904 by blue-grained wheat segment. The location and application of blue-grained wheat translocation lines were discussed.
英加1 李滨1 穆素梅2 周汉平3 刘建中1 李振声1*
2. 中国科学院石家庄农业现代化研究所，石家庄050021；3. 中国科学院西北植物研究所，陕西杨712100）
摘要： 普通小麦（Triticum aestivum L.）和长穗偃麦草（Agropyronelongatum (Host) Beauv=Elytriga elongatum (Host) Nevski=Thinopyrum ponticum (Host) Barkworth and Dewey,2n=10x=70）杂交后选育出的蓝粒小麦异代换系（蓝58），经辐射诱导与选育，对其后代进行荧光原位杂交检测后获得:（1）9902，9906两个蓝粒易位系，体细胞染色体数均为2n=42，其中9906中被易位蓝粒片段的相对长度约占易位小麦染色体短臂的1/3，而9902中被易位蓝粒片段的相对长度约占易位小麦染色体长臂的1/2，并将9902的蓝粒易位片段定位在小麦D组染色体上；（2）9915易位附加和9904易位-易位附加，其体细胞染色体数均为44，其中9915的体细胞染色体只有一对发生了易位，另外附加了两条长穗偃麦草染色体；而9904有两对染色体发生了易位。并就易位系中控制蓝粒性状的长穗偃麦草染色体片段的定位和蓝粒小麦易位系的应用进行了讨论。
The great morphological variation in staminate flowers makes it favorable for its use as the main criteria for infrageneric classification in the genus Schisandra (Schizandra) Michx. Organogenesis of different kinds of the staminate flowers has been observed under SEM. Combined with other currently available studies, the patterns of morphogenesis of the staminate flowers are categorized into three types: the columnar-torus type, the flattened-torus type, and the spherical-torus type. In the columnar-torus type, the torus of the staminate flower is kept columelliform through out the whole ontogenic process of the flower; this type can be further divided into two subtypes—the sphenantheraceous subtype, with the thecae laterally localized on both sides of the connective of the mature stamen, and the grandifloraceous subtype, instead with the thecae located outward or slightly outward. In the flattened-torus type, the torus of the staminate flower gradually becomes swollen and then flattened in the process of floral development, and forms a pentagonal shield together with the enlarged filaments and connectives of the stamen. The torus of the staminate flower in the spherical-torus type becomes carnified and swollen with the stamen growing into the depressions or cavities of the spherical torus. Among the three types, the columnar-torus one might be the primitive type, from which the other two were derived representing two different evolutionary trends respectively. By analyzing the cause of the morphological variation of the staminate flowers, it is suggested that the evolutionary pressure by the insect eating during pollinating enhanced the drastic differentiation of the morphology of the staminate flowers. In some taxa of the genus, in which the Coleoptera acted as the main pollinating agent, the enlargement of the torus of the staminate flower to form a thick flattened shield or a spheroid might be an adaptive fitness to the phylogenetic decreasing in number of the stamen. The primitiveness in stamen morphology of the Schisandra staminate flowers is also discussed, which might agree with the origin antiquity of the genus. The similarity of its heteropolar 3- or 6-aperturate pollen to the 3-aperturate pollen of Eudicots might result from convergent evolution. In addition, main infrageneric classifications of Schisandra and the systematic p
刘 忠1 路安民1* 林祁2 潘开玉1
（1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室，北京100093;2. 中国科学院植物研究所标本馆，北京100093）
摘要: 在五味子属 (Schisandra (Schizandra)Michx .)中 ,雄花的形态变异极大 ,是属下分类的主要性状。借助扫描电镜 ,全面观察了五味子属几个不同类型雄花的形态发生 ,结合已有的工作 ,首次提出该属雄花的形态建成有 3种类型。 (1)柱托型 (columnar_torustype)。雄花的花托在花形态发生的全过程中 ,保持柱状 ;根据雄蕊成熟时 ,药室着生的方向 ,又可分为两个亚型 :华中五味子亚型 (sphenantheraceoussubtype)和大花五味子亚型 (grandifloraceoussub type) ,前者药室侧向 ,后者药室外向或外侧向。 (2 )平托型 (flattened_torustype)。雄花的花托随花的发育逐渐扁化 ,雄蕊着生于四周而使雄蕊群呈扁平五边形。 (3)球托型 (spherical_torustype)。雄花的花托肉质化膨大 ,雄蕊着生于球状花托上的凹穴内。在此基础上 ,进一步讨论了诸类型间的系统演化关系 ,认为柱托型是原始类型 ;平托型与球托型源自于柱托型 ,它们是柱托型向不同方向演化的结果。分析了雄花形态变异的原因 ,认为昆虫咬食带来的进化压力导致本属雄花形态的高度分化。雄花花托增生膨大变扁平或者呈球状 ,可能是该属植物中以鞘翅目(Coleoptera)昆虫为主要传粉媒介的类群对系统演化上雄蕊数目减少时的适应性变化。讨论了五味子属植物的雄花在雄蕊形态上上的原始性及其所反映的该类群起源的古老性；其异极3 沟或6 沟型花粉与真双子叶植物的3 沟花粉的相似是趋同演化的结果。此外，对五味子属现行的主要分类系统和五味子科的系统位置进行了讨论。
cirpus mariqueter Tang et Zhang is a typical pioneer plant colonizing the bare beaches of the Yangtse River estuary. To explore the life history strategy of the species with reference to environmental physical stress, the biomass allocations to different plant components and some related morphological parameters were examined along an elevational gradient within a salt marsh. Authors found that S. mariqueter performed best at medium elevation within the marsh, with relatively high density of shoot and individual ramet dry mass. Biomass allocation to corm was the highest at low elevations, and the least at high elevations, suggesting that a conservative strategy was adopted by the species to cope with the harsh physical conditions at the low elevation. The investment in rhizome decreased from low to high elevations, while the proportion of inflorescence mass increased, indicating that during the life history, the species shifts from predominant asexual reproduction to predominant sexual reproduction. This may be favourable for the species to colonize larger area, and to spread and persist at a meta-population level. Correlation analyses showed that sexual reproduction was inversely related to growth and asexual reproduction. However, it is difficult to determine the relationship between asexual reproduction and growth possibly because of the varied function of the corms of the species in different life history stages.
孙书存1 蔡永立2 刘 红3
摘要: 海三棱草 (Scirpusmariqueter TangetZhang)是一种典型的先锋植物。它能占据于长江口盐沼的光滩上 ,生境非常恶劣。为探索该物种在高度环境胁迫下的生活史策略 ,测定了它在高程梯度上的生物量分配 ,以及有关形态学参数。结果发现海三棱草在中位高程时密度和单株生物量最高 ,生长最好。在由低及高的高程梯度上 ,球茎、根状茎的生物量分配比例逐渐下降 ,表明植物体在光滩前沿采取保守策略 ;而花序的比例则逐渐上升 ,表明植物在生活史过程中 ,由无性生殖向有性生殖的转变。这种转变可能有利于种群的扩散和生存。另外 ,相关分析表明 ,有性生殖性状与无性生殖、生长性状呈负相关 ,但无性生殖与生长性状间的关系难以确定 ,可能由于球茎在不同生活史阶段的不同功能引起。
The foliar δ13 C values of 226 plant species sampled from 7 transects belonging to 2 rainforests (named Chengzi and Bubeng, respectively) in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, China were analyzed. The characteristics of foliar δ13 C values and water use efficiency (WUE) of plants indicated by δ13 C values in this region were studied. In the mean time, the average foliar δ13 C values of plants in different transects and with different growth forms (i.e., tree, shrub, herb and liana) were compared. The results showed that: 1. the foliarδ13 C value in Xishuangbanna, ranging from -3.865%--2.760%, was similar to those of other typical rainforests in the world (Amazon and Puerto Rico, for instance), which indicated that the rainforests in this region had the typical characteristics of rainforests of the world; 2. there were significant differences between Chengzi and Bubeng in average foliarδ13 C values, with the latter being lower than that of the former; significant differences also existed between different transects in the same forest, which indicated that water conditions and orientation of transects might have resulted in these differences; 3. the average foliarδ13 C value of evergreen plants was significantly lower than that of deciduous plants, and there also existed significant differences between different growth forms, implying that the WUE of these plant species was also quite different.
渠春梅 韩兴国* 苏波 黄建辉 蒋高明
Three new phenolic glycosides, named as equisetumoside A (3-methoxy-11,12-dihydroxy-phenylhexane-9-one-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), equisetumoside B (3-methoxy-4,11-dihydroxy-phenylhexane-9-one-12-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and equisetumoside C ( cis -ferulic acid potassium salt 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) were isolated from the water-soluble extract of fertile sprouts of Equisetum arvense L. (Equisetaceae), together with uridine, inosine, 2′-deoxyinosine, 2′-deoxycytidine, tryptophan, thymidine, 5-carboxy-2′-deoxyuridine, coniferin, and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-sophoroside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation.
昌 军 宣利江* 徐亚明
摘要：从问荆 (Equisetumarvense L .)营养茎的水溶性成分中分离到 12个化合物。经波谱解析和化学方法鉴定 ,其中 3个新的酚甙化合物分别命名为equisetumosideA (3-methoxy-11,12-dihydroxy_phenylhexane-9-one-4-O-β-D-glucopyra noside)、equisetumosideB (3-methoxy-4,11-dihydroxy-phenylhexane-9-one-12-O-β-D-glucopyranoside)和equisetumosideC (cis_ferulicacidpotassiumsalt 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) ;其他成分鉴定为尿甙、次黄甙、2′-脱氧次黄甙、2′-脱氧胞甙、色氨酸、胸甙、5-羧基-2′-脱氧尿甙、松柏甙和莰非醇-3-O-β-D-槐糖基-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙。这些化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到。
关键词： 问荆；酚甙；equisetumoside A; equisetumoside B; equisetumoside C
A new saikosaponin was isolated from Bupleurum chinense DC., and its structure was identified as 3β，16α，23，28，30-pentahydroxy-olean-11,13(18)-dien-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→6)-［α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→4)］-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence, named as saikosaponin q-1. In addition, two known saikosaponins, 3″-O-acetyl-saikosaponin d and 3″-O-acetyl-saikosaponin b2, were also isolated and identified from this plant for the first time.
梁鸿1韩紫岩1 赵玉英1*王邠1 崔育新1杨文修2 余奕2
（1. 北京大学药学院，北京100083；2. 南开大学生物物理与技术系，天津300071）
摘要：从北柴胡（Bupheurum chinense DC.）根的醇提液的正丁醇部分分离得到３个化合物，分别鉴定为柴胡皂甙q-1（１）、３″－Ｏ－乙酰柴胡皂甙d(2)和３″－Ｏ－乙酰柴胡皂甙b2(3).化合物１为新化合物，用化学和波谱法确定其结构为３β，１６α，２３，２８，３０－五羟基－齐墩果－１１，１３（１８）－二烯－３－Ｏ－β－Ｄ吡喃葡萄糖（１→６）－[α-L-吡喃鼠李糖基（１→４）]－β－Ｄ－吡喃葡萄糖甙。化合物２和３为首次从北柴胡中分离得到。
A model for China biome reconstruction was deduced from 641 original pollen data of surface samples by biomazition procedure developed by Prentice et al . Fourteen biome types of China were recognised based on 31 plant fuctinooal types from 686 pollen types. The procedure successfully delineated the major vegetation types in China and, therefore, can provide an objective methord for China biome reconstruction of geological time, e.g. for 6 ka BP and 18 ka BP.
摘要： 根据中国第四纪孢粉数据库提供的641 个表土孢粉资料，利用孢粉生物群区化方法，建立了具有686个孢粉类群、31 类植物功能型和14种生物群区的孢粉生物群区化模型。经过检验，该模型在模拟中国生物群区、生物群区垂直分异和水平梯度分析方面均取得理想结果。模型已实现了计算机程序化，为重建过去地质历史时期的古生物群区和古气候分析，提供客观、准确的模型工具。
A 505 bp cDNA was cloned from the leaves of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Shanyou 63 combination. DNA sequence analysis showed that it is a part of rice chloroplast genome. Its homology comparison with those known in GenBank found that it encodes 38 amino acid peptide deduced from psbL gene and 40 amino acid peptide deduced from psbJ gene in rice chloroplast PSⅡ. Northern hybridization showed that the cDNA was differentially displayed in hybrid F1 and its parental lines.
水稻叶绿体基因组中一个编码 psbL 和psbJ 基因cDNA 的克隆与分析
顾克余* 罗林广 苏昌潮 翟虎渠
关键词： 水稻；psbL 和psbJ；cDNA 克隆；基因表达；差异显示
Freezing sections and immunogold-silver staining were employed to the study on the localization of IAA in petioles of Syringa oblata Lind. At different stages of leaf abscission, the distribution patterns of the silver particles varied in different tissues. In the earlier period of abscission, there were many silver particles in the proximal and distal tissues, but only a few in the abscission zone. The high density of silver particles was found in the phloem of the petiole. The number of silver particles in the abscission zone increase immediately after the protective layer was formed and began to decrease along with the development of the abscission zone. The density of the silver particles became very low when abscission was completed. The formation of protective layer may be the demarcation line of the Stage Ⅰ and Stage Ⅱ during the development of the abscission zone.
王幼群1,2* 韩 静2 林金星1
（1. 中国科学院植物研究所，北京100093；2. 中国农业大学生物学院，北京100094）
There are many extant endemic plants in China, which were widely distributed in the North Hemisphere during Tertiary. The global cooling during the Tertiary caused a series of narrow distribution regions of the plants. Quaternary glaciation invaded most regions of North America and Eurasia where severe destruction was imposed onto vegetation. However, such destruction was lessened in China largely because of specific topographic and geographical and obviously, a number of other conditions accounted for an unusual refugee camp for the relics of plants in China, among which lots of endemic taxa exist. Recently, Chinese endemic species, such as Metaseqouia, Eucommia , have been employed to conduct multi-disciplinary comprehensive studies so as to analyze Tertiary climate changes quantitatively. Meanwhile, a rigorous method, i.e. climate analysis of endemic species (CAES) has come to maturation. This method is characteristic of some generality because it is supposed to be applicable to the endemic species in other regions of the world. CAES is involved in the following aspects: 1. Conduct multidisciplinary studies on living and fossil species of endemic plants and trace their evolutionary courses. 2. Compare fossil species with living one and clarify which is the nearest living relative (NLR) to fossil counterpart. 3. Fossils and their living counterparts (NLR) are supposed to have similar ecological requirements to meet their life cycles. 4. Investigate the geographic distribution of living and fossil plants within the same taxa and ascertain the dynamic changes of their distributions in geological age. 5. Analyze climate factors in the distribution of specific endemic taxa and obtain the data of climatic characters which are suitable for reconstruction of paleoclimate where fossil counterparts lived. 6. Further study the physio-ecology of living species and determinate paleoclimate where fossil counterparts lived. 7. Integrate analysis of the data from steps 4, 5 and 6, and quantitatively reconstruct the climate where fossil and living plants survive.
李承森 王宇飞 孙启高
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