Root border cells, previously referred to as sloughed root cap cells, is a special cell population which separates in large numbers from the periphery of the root cap and accumulates in the root tip. Recent evidence reveals that border cells, whose development is regulated by endogenous and exogenous signals, are biologically viable in the majority of higher plant species. As soon as border cells detach from root cap periphery, their metabolic activity dramatically increases in accordance with a differential gene expression from that in root cap cells. Recently, PsUGT1 and RCPME1, relevant to the early and late stage of border cell development, respectively, have been cloned and functionally identified. Border cells can synthesize specially and export a diverse array of chemicals including anthocyanins, antibiotics, special enzymes and other substances, that either inhibit or promote the growth of other entities in rhizosphere such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes, and also antagonize some toxic chemicals around the root tip in soil such as aluminum toxicity. Therefore, there are multiple biological roles played by border cells during plant growth and development.
潘建伟 朱睦元* 彭华正 王利琳
关键词 边缘细胞 发育 功能 植物 胁迫
Ultrastructural changes in the sieve element and dense cells of nectariferous tissue during the development of floral nectary in Arabidopsis thaliana L. were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. Samples were prepared with high pressure freezing and freeze substitution techniques. The ultrastructure of dense cell was similar to that of sieve element at its early developmental stage. With the concurrent agglutination of chromatin in the nucleus, the abnormal location of organelles and the high density of cytoplasm, the ultrastructural characteristics in the dense cells of the nectariferous tissue and in the sieve element are matched with those of the programmed cell death in animal and plant reported in recent years. The disorganization of nucleus and most organelles in the differentiation of sieve elements and dense cells is closely associated with the transportation and modification of pre-nectar and the transference of nectar. This suggests that the cytological changes in sieve element and nectariferous tissue are closely associated with the nectary functional activities.
(1. 同济大学生命科学与生物医学工程研究院,上海 200331；2. 西北大学植物研究所,西安 710069)
摘要：应用高压冷冻和低温替代技术,对拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana L.)花蜜腺发育过程中细胞的超微结构变化进行了研究.蜜腺组织中深色细胞的超微结构与筛分子早期分化的超微结构十分相似:细胞核中染色质逐渐出现凝集并且边缘化;细胞器分布异常;细胞质浓稠.这些超微结构特征与近年来报道的动植物细胞程序性死亡的超微结构相似.在筛分子和深色细胞分化中,细胞核及一些细胞器的逐渐解体与原蜜汁的运输、加工和蜜汁的分泌有直接联系.这反映了蜜腺发育过程中筛分子和蜜腺组织的细胞学变化是与蜜腺的生长、发育和生理功能的完善联系在一起的.
关键词 花蜜腺 发育 超微结构 蜜腺组织 筛分子 拟南芥
It has been generally held in botany that Oryza sativa L. is a monocotyledon. Based on studies of rice embryo development we confirmed that rice embryo has two dimorphic cotyledons rather than just one cotyledon. In the present study we attempt to know if the morphology of embryos in other species of Oryza differs from O. sativaand if these embryos have dimorphic cotyledon. Two types of embryo structures were observed in 22 species and/or subspecies of genus Oryza under the scanning electron microscope. Type 1, the O.sativatype, whichis characterized by ventral scale and lateral scales, was found in 16 species.Type 2, the O. meyeriana(Zoll. et Mor. ex Steud.) Baill. ssp. tuberculata W. C. Wu et Y. G. Lu, G. C. Wang type, with no ventral scale and lateral scales, was found in 6 species and subspecies. The embryogenic process of O.sativaand O.meyeriana sub. tuberculata showed that the scutellum primordium, coleorhiza primordium, coleoptile primordium and shoot apical meristem directly differentiate from proembryo. The former two later develop into the embryo envelope, which is the outside cotyledon; the coleoptile primordium develops into the coleoptile with the shape of inverted empty cone surrounding and covering the growth cone, which is the apical cotyledon. Both types of rice embryos have dimorphic cotyledons. The structural difference between them is that the scutellum primordium of the young embryo in type 2 does not differentiate ventral scale and lateral scales while the embryo of type 1 does. The dimorphic cotyledons of embryo of Oryza plants originate from the dorsiventrality of proembryo.
徐雪宾1* 刘向东1 章崇玲2 吴万春2 韩惠珍2
(1. 华南农业大学植物分子育种研究中心,广州 510642；2. 华南农业大学植物学教研室,广州 510642)
摘要：长久以来植物学界认定稻(Oryza sativa L.)是单子叶植物.作者从稻胚发育的研究中确认稻胚具二型子叶,并非单子叶.稻属其他种的胚胎形态与O.sativa是否相同?是否具二型子叶?根据扫描电子显微镜的观察结果,稻属(Oryza) 22个种和亚种的胚的形态结构可以分为两种类型.O.sativa等16个种胚具腹鳞和侧鳞,属第一类型;O. meyeriana (Zoll. et Mor. ex Steud.) Baill.ssp. tuberculata W. C. Wu et Y. G. Lu, G. C. Wang等6个种(亚种)胚缺腹鳞和侧鳞,属第二类型.O.sativa和O. meyeriana ssp. tuberculata的胚胎发育过程所出现的盾片原基、胚根鞘原基、胚芽鞘原基和生长锥均来自原胚,前二者发育成胚套,是外围子叶;胚芽鞘原基发育成围在生长锥外并盖住生长锥的空心的倒锥状胚芽鞘,是顶生子叶.第一类型与第二类型稻胚都具有二型子叶.第二类型稻胚在盾片原基发育过程中并不分化出腹鳞和侧鳞,因而造成第二类型稻胚缺腹鳞与侧鳞.稻的二型子叶源于原胚的背腹极性分化.
关键词 稻属 胚胎发生 二型子叶 背腹极性 胚套(外围子叶) 盾片与胚芽鞘(顶生子叶)
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The molecular structure of a higher plant myosin with two 174 kD heavy chains purified from the tendrils of Luffa cylindrica(L.) Roem. was viewed by electron microscopy. The myosin exhibited actin-activated MgATPase activity and could be recognized immunologically by a monoclonal antibody against the skeletal muscle myosin. Electron micrographs of rotary shadowed images of this protein revealed that it had two heads with size and shape similar to those of the skeletal muscle myosin and a relatively short tail in comparison with the conventional myosin. Luffa tendril actin filaments were also visualized and occasionally other Luffa myosin-like proteins with globular structure at the tail ends were also observed. The structural similarity and immunological cross reactivity with antibodies against muscle myosin demonstrate that the 174 kD Luffa tendril myosin is a double-headed myosin. The possible involvement of myosin-actin interactions in Luffa tendril contact coiling will be the subject of further research.
(1. 南昌大学生物学系,南昌 330047；2. 中国农业大学生物学院,北京100094)
摘要：从丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.)卷须中纯化得到分子量为174kD的肌球蛋白,并对其进行了酶学与电子显微学的研究.这种肌球蛋白具有肌动蛋白激活的MgATPase活性,能够被抗动物肌肉的肌球蛋白的单克隆抗体识别.电子显微学研究表明:它有两个头部(大小和形状与动物肌肉的肌球蛋白相似)和一条相对较短的尾部.还对丝瓜卷须的肌动蛋白进行了观测,偶尔发现一些尾部有球状结构的肌球蛋白.该肌球蛋白的免疫特性和超微结构证明了它由2条重链组成,并与传统的肌球蛋白相似.然而,这种174 kD的肌球蛋白是否参与了丝瓜的接触卷曲有待于进一步研究.
关键词 肌球蛋白 结构 电子显微学 纯化 丝瓜
In studying the XCAP-C-like protein in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativa L., the nuclei were isolated from the cells and the nuclear matrices prepared. A 165 kD polypeptide, which is equivalent to XCAP-C in molecular weight, was demonstrated in the nuclei by SDS-PAGE, and was then proved to be an XCAP-C-like protein by Western blot using an anti-XCAP-C antiserum, but neither the polypeptide nor the XCAP-C-like protein was detected in the nuclear matrix. The nuclei, chromosomes and chromosome scaffolds were observed to emanate strong, specific fluorescence after labeled with the anti-XCAP-C antiserum and an FITC-conjugated secondary antibody, indicating their containment of the XCAP-C-like protein. It was confirmed by viewing with immunoelectron microscopy that the gold particles representing the localization of the XCAP-C-like protein were found to be mainly distributed in the condensed chromatin regions of the nuclei and chromosomes.
王岩1 邢苗2* 阎石3
(1. 东北师范大学遗传与细胞研究所,长春 130024；2. 深圳大学,深圳 518060；3. 中国人民解放军军需大学,长春 130062)
摘要：以抗XCAP-C抗体为探针,用SDS-PAGE、免疫印迹、免疫荧光和免疫电镜技术,对蒜(Allium sativa L.)根端细胞核、核骨架、染色体和染色体骨架进行研究.SDS-PAGE和免疫印迹结果表明:细胞核中的165kD多肽是XCAP-C类似蛋白,在核骨架中未检测到XCAP-C类似蛋白.免疫荧光和免疫电镜结果表明:蒜细胞核、染色体和染色体骨架中含有XCAP-C类似蛋白,该蛋白位于细胞核中的染色质区域,但核骨架不含有XCAP-C类似蛋白.
关键词 蒜 SMC蛋白 XCAP-C类似蛋白 细胞核 染色体
Starch degradation in cells is closely associated with cereal seed germination, photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate storage in tuberous roots, and fleshy fruit development. α-Amylase is considered as one of the key enzymes catalyzing starch breakdown, but up to date its role in starch breakdown in living cells remains unclear because the enzyme was often shown extrachloroplastic in living cells. The present experiment showed that α-amylase activity was progressively increasing concomitantly with the decreasing starch concentrations during the development of apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) fruit. The apparent amount of α-amylase assessed by Western blotting also increased during the fruit development, which is consistent with the seasonal changes in the enzyme activity. The enzyme subcellular-localization studies via immunogold electron-microscopy technique showed that α-amylase visualized by gold particles was predominantly located in plastids, but the gold particles were scarcely found in other subcellular compartments. A high density of the enzyme was observed at the periphery of starch granules during the middle and late developmental stages. These data proved that the enzyme is compartmented in its functional sites in the living cells of the fruit. The predominantly plastid-distributed pattern of α-amylase in cells was shown unchanged throughout the fruit development. The density of gold particles (α-amylase) in plastids was increasing during the fruit development, which is consistent with the results of Western blotting. So it is considered that α-amylase is involved in starch hydrolysis in plastids of the fruit cells.
摘要：淀粉降解代谢与种子萌发、叶片光合作用、块根贮藏及肉质果实的发育密切相关.α-淀粉酶是催化淀粉水解的重要酶之一,然而由于它在生活细胞中经常定位于叶绿体或质体之外,与淀粉基质在亚细胞水平上相互隔离,所以该酶在植物活体内的生理功能至今不完全清楚.研究表明,在苹果(Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson)果实发育过程中,α-淀粉酶活性由低到高,与淀粉含量大致呈现互为消长的变化.Western blotting实验证明,在果实发育过程中,α-淀粉酶的表观数量也是由少到多,与活性的变化一致.利用胶体金免疫电镜定位技术证明,果实内α-淀粉酶主要定位于质体内,其他亚细胞区域内α-淀粉酶分布很少;尤其在果实发育中后期,围绕质体内淀粉粒有高密度的α-淀粉酶分布,说明该酶主要分布于细胞内功能区域.α-淀粉酶优先定位于质体内的亚细胞分布特点在果实整个生长发育期没有变化.随着果实发育的推进,质体内胶体金分布密度显著增加,此结果与Western blotting实验相互印证.推测α-淀粉酶参与了果实细胞内质体中淀粉的水解过程.
关键词 α-淀粉酶 亚细胞定位 苹果果实
*通讯作者 E-mail: email@example.com
Water channels or aquaporins are the main pathways of water transport. Both the existence and function of aquaporins in the guard cells of Vicia faba L. were investigated both by using RD28 cDNA and RD28 antibody as probes, and by controlling stomatal movement as a parameter combined with antibody and inhibitor of aquaporins respectively. The results revealed that RD28 mRNA, encoding a plasma membrane aquaporin, expressed in the mesophyll cells and vascular tissues of V． faba, especially in guard cells. And the location of RD28-like proteins was mainly on plasma membrane of guard cells. The addition of 25 μmol/L HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, and antibody of RD28 as well, greatly suppressed the stomatal opening or guard-cell protoplast swelling induced by fusicoccin and light, and closing induced by abscisic acid. However, 5 mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol, a reverse reagent of aquaporin blocker, reversed the inhibitory effect of HgCl2 pretreatment on stomatal opening (i.e., HgCl2 was removed after HgCl2 pretreatment for 10 min). The results suggest that the aquaporins in V. faba are associated with stomatal movement.
黄荣峰1,3 朱美君2,3 康蕴2 陈珈2,3 王学臣2,3*
(1. 中国农业科学院生物技术研究所,北京 100081; 2. 中国农业大学生物学院,北京 100094; 3. 植物生理学与生物化学国家重点实验室,北京 100094)
摘要：水通道或水通道蛋白是水分运动的主要通道.以RD28 cDNA和RD28抗体为探针证明了蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)保卫细胞中存在水通道蛋白,并以气孔运动为指标,结合抗体和抑制剂处理证明水通道蛋白是水分运动的主要通道.研究表明编码质膜水通道蛋白的RD28转录体在叶片保卫细胞、叶肉细胞和维管束中高表达,尤以保卫细胞中最多;荧光免疫染色和Confocal显微镜观察表明,RD28抗体反应主要位于保卫细胞质膜.进一步采用RD28抗体和水通道蛋白抑制剂--HgCl2 (25μmol/L)处理可抑制壳梭孢素(FC)、光照诱导的气孔开放和原生质体体积膨胀以及ABA诱导的气孔关闭,但这种抑制作用可以被水通道抑制剂的逆转剂β-巯基乙醇(ME)逆转.表明蚕豆保卫细胞中存在水通道蛋白并参与蚕豆保卫细胞的运动过程.
关键词 水通道蛋白 原位杂交 RD28抗体 气孔运动 蚕豆
*通讯作者 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Comparative genetic studies have shown that there are widespread synteny and colinearity of the genes among different species within grass family. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a model plant, and analysis of its genome allows us to reveal the common features and the evolutionary rules of the gramineous genomes and accumulate the data for establishment of a common genetic system in the Poaceae. In this study, a rice gene Pib (10.3 kb), a map-based cloned gene, and RFLP markers linked with it are used as the tested probes to investigate their homology and physical location among the tested species. Southern blotting analysis showed that there were sequences homologous to Pib in maize genome. Further, Pib was localized onto the chromosomes of O. sativa ssp.indica cv. Guang luai 4, O. officinalis Wall ex Watt and the inbred line of Zea mays cv. Huangzao 4. The results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and double-color FISH indicated that a synteny of Pib and RFLP markers linked with Pib existed among the genomes of the three tested species.
李霞 宁顺斌 金危危 宋运淳*
摘要：比较遗传学研究表明,禾本科不同基因组之间存在着广泛的同线性和共线性.对水稻(Oryza sativa L.)这一模式植物与其他禾本科植物的原位杂交定位可以揭示禾本科植物基因组的共同特点和进化规律,为建立禾本科遗传大体系积累资料.实验以图位克隆法分离的水稻Pib 基因(10.3 kb)和与之连锁的RFLP标记为探针, 研究了Pib及与其连锁的RFLP标记在供试种中的同源性和物理位置. Southern杂交结果表明,Pib在玉米(Zea mays L.)基因组中有同源序列.进一步利用单色和双色荧光原位杂交技术确定了Pib在栽培稻(O.sativa ssp. indica cv. Guangluai 4)、玉米和药用野生稻(O. officinalis Wall ex Watt)染色体上的物理位置.定位结果表明,Pib基因和与之连锁的RFLP标记在这3个供试种基因组中具有同线性.
关键词： 水稻 RFLP标记 双色荧光原位杂交 Pib 比较物理定位
*通讯作者 Email: email@example.com
Short-day (SD) induced the plant senescence in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) strain 185. Structural assay, gene expression and a series of biochemical analyses were performed to analyze the senescence mechanism in pumpkin strain 185 exposed to SD. Two aspects of important changes initiated in SD exposure contributed to the senescence process. SD functionally led to the initiation of the apical transformation from vegetative to reproductive growth, and then programmed cell death (PCD) in the apical meristem, causing the loss of vigorous growth activity. Moreover, SD treatment resulted in the formation of a great number of dying cells in mesophyll tissue later in the development compared with the phenotype of plants under long-day (LD) conditions. During the senescence process, high expression of nuclease is an important molecular event. These results indicate that the initiation of senescence process in pumpkin stain 185 plants is closely related to the death of cells in apical meristem and mesophyll.
王大勇 胡爽 李晴 崔克明* 朱玉贤*
摘要：在短日照下 ,西葫芦 (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) 185品系的植株发生衰老。结构学、基因表达与系列生化分析证实:短日照启动了顶端分生组织由营养生长锥向花芽的转化 ,进而其组成细胞发生编程性死亡 (PCD) ,导致顶端生长势的丧失 ;与长日照处理相比 ,短日照处理在发育晚期也引起大量叶肉细胞发生PCD ,进而叶片出现衰老。核酸酶活性的高度表达是PCD过程中一个非常重要的分子事件。实验证实,西葫芦 185品系植株衰老进程的发生与顶端分生组织和叶肉细胞中发生PCD密切相关。
关键词: 光周期 衰老 细胞编程性死亡
Fe (iron) deficiency is an important nutritional problem particularly in crop plants grown on calcareous soils. Phytosiderophore (PS) release has been suggested to be linked to the ability of graminaceous species and genotypes to overcome Fe-deficiency chlorosis. Thus, enhancing PS release is a critical step to improve Fe nutrition of plants grown on Fe stressed soils. The heterosis of PS release rate in common wheat was studied by analyzing PS release from roots of three hybrids and their four parents grown in Fe-deficiency nutrient solution under controlled environmental conditions. PS release rates were determined at two or three day intervals after onset of Fe-deficiency symptoms by the measurement of Fe mobilizing capacity of root exudates from freshly precipitated FeⅢ hydroxide. High amounts of phytosiderophores were released from the roots of all wheat genotypes under Fe-deficiency, and the amount progressively increased with the development of Fe-deficiency chlorosis. The results revealed that the hybrids had more sensitive feedback systems which secreted more phytosiderop hores under Fe-deficiency than their parents. By analyzing the relationship between each hybrid and its parents, it was also found that the parents should be selected on the basis of the rate of PS release and the combining ability by using the heterosis to improve Fe utilizability of crop plants.
于福同2 张福锁1* 张爱民2
(1. 中国农业大学植物营养系,北京 100094; 2. 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所,北京100101)
摘要：缺铁是石灰性土壤常见的植物营养问题之一.禾本科植物种或基因型的植物铁载体分泌能力与耐缺铁有关,提高植物铁载体分泌能力是改良缺铁的土壤上植物铁营养的关键措施之一。在水培条件下分析了冬小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)3个杂交种及其4个亲本在缺铁营养液中植物铁载体的分泌及杂种的效应.植物铁载体的分泌率通过根分泌物对新形成的Fe(OH)3的活化能力进行测定, 在缺铁症出现时每隔2、3天测定1次.在缺铁条件下,所有基因型都分泌较多的植物铁载体,并且随缺铁症状的发展分泌量增加.杂交种具有对缺铁更敏感的反馈系统,在缺铁条件下,杂交种比亲本分泌铁载体的速度更快、量更高.通过分析杂交种和亲本的关系,认为可以通过对亲本分泌植物铁载体能力和配合力的选择,利用杂种优势来提高小麦铁的利用效率.
关键词： 小麦 植物铁载体 缺铁 杂种优势
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Triose phosphate translocator (TPT) is located in the inner membrane of plant chloroplasts.It catalyzes the counter exchange of triose phosphate/3-phosphoglycerate and phosphate. To obtain the basic information on the structure-function relation, a cDNA encoding the complete precursor of the triose phosphate translocator has been isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) strategies. The wheat TPT cDNA encodes a precursor protein of 402 amino acid residues with a deduced molecular weight of 43 kD. A putative processing site between Ala-78 and Ala-79 of the precursor protein is suggested by comparison with those of the TPTs from spinach (Spinacia oleracea Mill.) and maize (Zea mays L.). The mature part of wheat TPT consists of 324 amino acid with a molecular weight of 35 kD, which share 89% identity with maize TPT. The amino acids Lys-274 and Arg-275(mature protein) which is regarded as the substrate-binding site, are both conserved in plant TPTs. The gene expression analysis for leaves, coleoptiles, roots and seeds of wheat showed that the TPT transcript was only detectable in leaves and coleoptiles. No apparent expression signal was detected in the roots and seeds. This indicated that the expression of wheat TPT might be restricted to green tissues.
王庆梅 陈珈* 王学臣 沙伟 孙金月
(1. 中国农业大学生物学院, 植物生理学与生物化学国家重点实验室, 北京 100094)
摘要：利用RT-PCR方法以及RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends)策略,从小麦(Triticum aestivum L.) 幼苗叶片中克隆了编码磷酸丙糖转运器(TPT)的全长cDNA.序列分析结果表明,小麦TPT cDNA编码402个氨基酸的前体蛋白,其中信号肽含有78个氨基酸.成熟蛋白部分与玉米(Zea mays L.)TPT有很高的同源性(89%).推测小麦TPT成熟蛋白有8个跨膜区,形成双亲α-螺旋的跨膜结构.位于第7个跨膜区的Arg-274和Lys-275可能是底物结合位点.比较TPT基因在小麦幼苗的根、胚芽鞘、叶片和种子中的表达差异表明:TPT基因在叶片、胚芽鞘中均有表达,但在胚芽鞘中的表达量较低,在种子和根中未见有表达.由此看来,小麦TPT的基因可能只局限在绿色组织中表达.还就C3和C4植物TPT不同的底物特异性问题进行了讨论
关键词： 磷酸丙糖转运器 cDNA 克隆 小麦
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The circumscriptions of sections Auganthus Pax ex Balf. f. and Ranunculoides Chen et C. M. Hu in the genus Primula L. have been controversial, due to the different treatments of P. filchnerae Knuth. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis using sequences from the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. All five species of these two sections and some representatives of other related sections were sampled. The ITS trees show that P. filchnerae could be convincingly placed in sect.Auganthus, together with P. sinensis Sabine ex Lindl. and P. rupestris Balf. f. et Farrer, whereas sect. Ranunculoides contains two species: P. cicutariifolia Pax and P. merrilliana Schltr. These two sections are distantly related and their association with other sections needs further studies. This study also demonstrated that ITS sequences would be a suitable marker for the reconstruction of Primula phylogeny.
郝刚 胡启明 李南淑
(1. 中国科学院华南植物研究所系统演化植物学中心,广州 510650；2. Deparmen of Biology, Euha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea)
摘要：报春花属(Primula L.)藏报春组(sect. Auganthus Pax ex Balf. f.)和毛茛叶报春组(sect. Ranunculoides Chen et C. M. Hu)的界定一直是没有解决的问题.应用核糖体DNA ITS序列数据探讨其系统发育关系.取样包括藏报春组和毛茛叶报春组的全部5个种以及其他一些相关组的代表种.ITS系统树表明,陕西羽叶报春(P. filchnerae Knuth)应与藏报春(P. sinensis Sabine ex Lindl.)和野藏报春(P. rupestris Balf. f. et Farrer)一起置于藏报春组;毛茛叶报春组只含两种:毛茛叶报春(P. cicutariifolia Pax)和安徽羽叶报春(P. merrilliana Schltr.).这两组并不具密切亲缘关系,它们在报春花属中与其他组的关系还需进一步研究.研究也表明ITS序列可以为报春花属的系统发育重建提供大量可靠资料.
关键词： 报春花属 藏报春组 毛茛叶报春组 系统发育 ITS 报春花科
Four rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars “IR72”, “Tesanai 2”, “Guichao 2” and “IIyou 4480” were grown in two plastic house (15 m×3 m) with 35 μmol/mol and 60 μmol/mol CO2 concentration which was controlled by computer. As compared with rice at ambient 35 μmol/mol CO2, the changes in photosynthetic rate at elevated CO2 showed up-regulation (“IR72” and “Tesanai 2”), stable (unchanged) in “Guichao 2” and down-regulation type (“IIyou 4480”). Growth rate, panicle weight, integrated water use efficiency (WUE) calculated from Δ13C and the capacity of scavenging DPPH· (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical were increased at elevated CO2. An increment in total biomass was observed in three cultivars by elevated CO2, with the exception of “IIyou 4480”. Ratios of panicle weight/total biomass were altered to different extents in tested cultivars by elevated CO2. When leaf segments were subjected to PEG osmotic stress, the electrolyte leakage rate from leaves grown at elevated CO2 was less than that at 35 μmol/mol CO2. Those intraspecific variations of rice imply a possibility for selecting cultivars with maximal productivity and high tolerance to stresses adapted to elevated CO2 in the future.
彭长连 段俊 林桂珠 陈贻竹 彭少麟
(中国科学院华南植物研究所, 广州 510650)
摘要：四个水稻(Oryza sativa L.)品种"IR72"、"特三矮2号"、"桂朝2号"和"Ⅱ优4480"在田间栽于含35 μmol/mol 和60 μmol/mol CO2的塑料大棚中,自然光照.高浓度CO2下供试水稻品种的光合速率变化表现为提高型("IR72"、"特三矮2号")、稳定型("桂朝2号"的Pn几无变化)和下调型("Ⅱ优4480").生长速率、穗重、由Δ13C计算而得的长期水分利用效率和清除DPPH˙自由基的能力皆增加.除"Ⅱ优4480"外,其他3个品种明显增高总生物量.供试品种的穗重/总生物量比不同程度地受到高浓度CO2的改变.叶片段经PEG渗透胁迫后,不同的生长于高浓度CO2者的电解质渗漏率较小.结果表明高浓度CO2可改变水稻的光合作用和水分关系特性, 品种间不同的响应显示了选育适于未来高浓度CO2下具有高产和抗逆性品种的可能性.
关键词：水稻 高浓度CO2 光合作用 水分利用效率 13C分辨作用 渗透胁迫
The ion levels in the epidermal bulliform cells of epidermis, mesophyll cells and cells of the vascular bundle sheath of four ecotypes of reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) were determined by means of X-ray microanalysis. The results indicated that higher K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- were distributed in the vascular bundle sheath cells than in mesophyll cells and epidermal bulliform cells of the swamp ecotype. Higher Ca2+ was found in the bulliform cells than in mesophyll cells and vascularbundle sheath cells, higher Mg2+ in the mesophyll cells and higher K+, Na+ and Cl- in the vascular bundle sheath cells of the dune ecotype. Higher Na+ and Mg2+ was determined in the mesophyll cells than in the bulliform cells and vascular bundle sheath cells, and higher K+, Ca2+ and Cl- in the vascular bundle sheath cells of the light salt meadow ecotype. In the heavy salt meadow ecotype, higher Na+ and Mg2+ were accumulated in the bulliform cells than in mesophyll cells and vascular bundle sheath cells, but higher K+, Ca2+ and Cl- in the mesophyll cells. Furthermore, the distributional conditions of the above five ions in leaf cells of the four ecotypes and their significance in the physiological adaptation of reed to habitat were discussed in detail.
郑文菊1,2 陈国仓2 张承烈2 胡玉熹1 李凌浩1 林金星1*
(1. 中国科学院植物研究所, 北京, 100093; 2. 兰州大学生物系, 兰州, 730000)
摘要：采用X射线微区分析技术,测定了 4种生态型芦苇 (Phragmites australis (CaV.)Trin .exSteud .)叶的表皮泡状细胞、叶肉细胞和叶脉维管束鞘细胞离子的含量。结果表明 :沼泽芦苇的鞘细胞内, K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+和Cl-分布均较叶肉细胞和泡状细胞高。沙丘芦苇的泡状细胞中Ca2+分布较叶肉细胞和鞘细胞高, 而Mg2+在其叶肉细胞,以及K+、Na+和Cl- 在其鞘细胞内分布均较高。在轻度盐化草甸芦苇的叶肉细胞内分布较多的Na+和Mg2+,而在鞘细胞内K+、Ca2+和Cl-的分布均较叶肉细胞和泡状细胞为高。重度盐化草甸芦苇的泡状细胞内Na+和Mg2+的分布较多;同样,在叶肉细胞中K+、Ca2+和Cl-的分布也较多.最后,讨论了上述各种离子在不同生态型芦苇叶内分布的状况, 以及与其环境适应的生理意义。
The anther-smut Microbotryum violaceum (Brandenburger and Schvinn) G. Deml. and Oberw.) causes a systemic infection of its host Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., resulting in sterility and production of teliospores (dispersal propagules) in flowers. These spores are transmitted to healthy plants mainly by flower visitors. The behavioral responses of flower visitors to a variation in floral characters, are not only likely to affect rates of pollen export/import, but also the rate of spore deposition and probability of disease. In a transplantation experiment, using plants from four different populations, we tested for correlation between variation in female floral morphology and patterns of spore and pollen deposition, and a resulting risk of disease. The source populations in this experiment were located on four islands in Skeppsvik archipelago in northern Sweden, and represented a gradient of disease incidence from completely healthy (Island 1), low incidence (Island 2) to highincidences (Islands 3 and 4) of disease. Fifty plants from each population were transplanted to the center of the population on Island 4. There were significant differences among the transplants in floral characters, i.e. corolla size, style length and ovule number. Plants from the non-diseased population had larger flowers and longer styles than plants from the highly diseased populations. Numbers of pollen grains and spores deposited on flowers were strongly and positively correlated. We found that plants originating from the non-diseased population captured approximately 4 times more pollen and 9 times more spores per flower than the individuals from the resident population (Island 4, population 4). The incidences of disease among plants from the four populations differed significantly, and was 37%, 20%, 18% and 0 for populations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. In a survey of ten populations we found a significant negative correlation between the mean style length (positively correlated with corolla size and ovule number) among healthy plants and incidence of disease in these populations. The potentiality for pathogen-pollinator mediated selection on floral characters and consequences for gene flow between populations of Silene dioica are discussed.
刘登义1* Ulla CARLSSON2
2. Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, University of Umeá, S-901 87 Umeá, Sweden）
摘要： 花药黑粉菌（Microbotryum violaaceum）可系统侵染其寄主植物麦瓶草（Silene dioica），使其不育而代之以在植物花中布满菌孢子。这些菌孢子主要由花传媒昆虫带到健康植株。花传媒昆虫对花部特征变异的行为反应不仅可能影响花粉的输入: 输出率，而且影响菌孢子的着落率和植株的发病与否。为研究S. dioica雌株花部性状特征与花粉传布、菌孢子着落及由此而导致的植株染病之间的相关性，用采自4个不同S. dioica种群的植物进行了移栽实验。该4个种群均位于瑞典北部的Skeppsvik群岛，代表了从健康（岛1，种群1），低度发病（岛,2种群2）到高度发病（岛3、4，种群3、4）的发病梯度。从上述4个不同种群中各采50个植株移栽至岛4的中部。来自健康种群的植株较来自高发病种群的植株具有较大的花，较长的花柱。研究发现，着落在花上的花粉粒数和菌孢子数呈强正相关。来自健康种群的植株每朵花上着落的花粉粒和菌孢子数分别是高发病种群（种群4）植株的4倍和9倍，导致来自4个不同种群的植株的发病率存在着显著差异，种群1、2、3、4的发病率分别为37％、20％、18％、0。在涉及10个种群的田间调查研究中，发现种群中健康植株的平均花柱长度（与花冠大小，胚珠数目正相关）与植株的发病率显著负相关。讨论了病原体0传媒调节的植物花部性状特征选择潜势及由其导致的麦瓶草S. dioica种群间的基因漂移。
Architectural plasticity of clonal plants may enhance exploitation of soil moisture heterogeneity by the plants. The plasticity of clonal architecture in response to soil moisture in the stoloniferous herb, Duchesnea indica Focke, was investigated in an experiment with different soil moisture contents as treatments, i.e. 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% of the maximum moisture content of soil (MMCS). As soil moisture content increased, the spacer length, ramet density, branching intensity and branching angle of D. indica plants changed by quadratic curve. And the optimum habitat for the plants was at 80% of the MMCS. This architectural plasticity in D. indica was simulated through the Dynamic Logistic Model. The imitative effect was statistically satisfactory. Its architectural plasticity observed here may allow the species to show foraging behavior in its habitat where soil moisture is patchily distributed.
A new C-glycosylflavone, named panzhihuacycaside (1), was isolated from the leaves of Cycas panzhihuaensis L. Zhou et S. Y. Yang (Cycadaceae) along with 2,3-dihydrohinokiflavone (2), 5,5″,7,7″,4′,4-hexahydroxy-(2′,8″)-biflavone (3), vanillic acid (4),β-sitosterol (5) and daucosterol (6). Their structures were elucidated by spectral and chemical evidence.
周燕 彭树林 李朝銮 王明奎 丁立生*
摘要：从攀枝花苏铁(Cycas panzhihuaensis L. Zhou et S. Y. Yang)叶中分离出6个化合物,其中1个为新黄酮碳甙,命名为攀枝花苏铁甙(1),其结构通过波谱解析和化学降解得以确定.其余化合物分别鉴定为2,3-二氢偏柏黄酮(2)、 5,5″,7,7″,4′, 4-六羟基-(2′,8″)-双黄酮(3)、香草酸(4)、β-谷甾醇(5)和胡萝卜甙(6).
关键词 攀枝花苏铁 黄酮碳甙 攀枝花苏铁甙
Three kinds of anatomically-preserved lepidodendralean leaves from Permian coal balls of China were studied. They all have double xylem strands, which is consistent with the genus Sigillariopsis Scott. Compared with the species of Sigillariopsis, they are considered as three new species: S. shanxiensis sp. nov. and S. taiyuanensis sp. nov. from Coal Seam 7 in the upper part of the Taiyuan Formation (lower Lower Permian), Xishan Coal Field, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province and S. guizhouensis sp. nov. from Coal Seam 1 in the Wangjiazhai Formation (upper Upper Permian), Shuicheng Coal Mining District, Guizhou Province. Based on the associated organs of lepidodendraleans other than leaves and the information of the Euramerican lepidodendraleans, the affinities of the three new species of Sigillariopsis are discussed and they are probably leaves of Sigillaria Brongniart. In Euramerican Flora, Sigillaria (including its leaves Sigillariopsis) mainly lived in the Carboniferous period and in the Cathaysian Flora they lived in the Upper Carboniferous to upper Upper Permian periods in rare localities. The leaves and fertile organs of Sigillaria have not been reported from the Cathaysian Flora to date. Three new species of the Permian anatomically-preserved leaves of Sigillaria not only increase the diversity of the Cathaysian sigillarian but also bear important significance on the evolution of sigillarian plants and the relationship of the Cathaysian and Euramerican lepidodendraleans.
王士俊1 田宝霖2 陈贵仁2
(1中国科学院植物研究所, 北京, 100093；2中国矿业大学, 北京, 100083)
报道了产于中国二叠纪煤核中的3种具解剖构造的鳞木类叶,它们都具双木质部束,与似封印叶属(Sigillariopsis Scott)特征一致。与该属已有种进行了对比,确认它们为3个新种：产于山西太原西山煤田太原组上部7号煤层(早二叠世早期)煤核中的山西似封印叶(Sigillariopsis shanxiensis sp. nov.)和太原似封印叶(S. taiyuanensis sp.nov.)以及产于贵州水城矿区汪家寨组1号煤层(晚二叠世晚期)煤核中的贵州似封印叶(Sigillariopsis guizhouensis sp.nov.)。根据煤核中共生的鳞木类植物其他器官以及欧美植物区鳞木类植物的研究资料推断,它们可能属于封印木属(Sigillaria Brongniart)的叶。在国外(主要是欧美植物区),封印木属植物主要分布于石炭纪,见于二叠纪的封印木很少。华夏植物区的封印木属过去很少发现,其叶和生殖器官均未报道过.本文是首次报道华夏植物区具解剖构造的封印木属的叶,它们的发现不仅丰富了华夏植物区封印木属植物的内容,而且对于研究封印木属的演化以及华夏植物区与欧美植物区鳞木类植物之间的关系也具有重要的意义。
以花叶千年木(Dracaena fragrans cv. Massangeana Hort.)的花被筒、花序分枝轴和花序轴为外植体成功地诱导了花序的直接再生. 3种外植体首先在MS附加1.0 mg/L 6-BA和0.5-0.8mg/L 2,4-D的培养基上诱导形成愈伤组织,然后转移到MS附加0.5 mg/L 6-BA和0.005～0.5 mg/L 2,4-D的培养基上分别诱导了花序的直接再生.观察了愈伤组织形成和花序分化的形态学过程.
李淑芹1 唐崇钦1 董凤琴1 李良璧1 匡廷云1
A.A. KHOROBRYKH2 V.V.KLIMOV2
（1. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用研究中心，北京 100093；
2. Institute of Basic Biological Problem, Russion Academy of Sciences, Pushchin, Moscow region 142290, Russia)
摘要： 研究了新的抑制剂K-23对波菜（Spinacia oleracea Mill.）PSⅡ放氧活性和2，6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) 光还原活性的影响。研究发现：抑制剂K-23在低浓度时对PSⅡ放氧活性有明显促进作用，而对DCIP光还原活性的促进作用不太明显。在高浓度时抑制PSⅡ放氧活性和DCIP光还原。对K-23的抑制部位进行了初步探讨。
李旭刚 陈松彪 路子显 常团结 曾千春 朱祯*
摘要：对农杆菌介导法获得的转β-葡糖醛酸酶(β-glucuronidase, GUS)基因(uidA)烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)进行GUS表达分析,发现部分转基因植株无GUS活性.进一步Southern杂交结果发现,GUS基因失活植株的基因组中整合了多个uidA拷贝,而GUS活性高的转基因植株多为uidA单拷贝整合,表明uidA基因失活与基因多拷贝整合有关. Northern杂交结果显示,失活植株无特异uidA RNA杂交带,而GUS活性高的植株可检测到明显的杂交信号,说明多拷贝引起的基因失活发生在RNA水平.
关键词 转基因植物 uidA基因 多拷贝整合 基因失活
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任珺1,3* 陶玲2 刘新民1
(1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,兰州 730000；2. 云南大学生命科学与化学学院,昆明 650091；3. 甘肃农业大学林学院,兰州 730070)
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