Author: Yang Hong-yuan and Zhou Chang
J Integr Plant Biol 1979, 21 (4): -.
The present paper deals with the experimental researches on the gametophytic and sporophytic pathways of pollen development in Oryza sativa L. Subsp. Keng, Cultivar Jinghong No. 2. Three methods of culture were used: (1) The lemma, palea and pistil of excised spikelets were removed and the pedicel was inserted vertically into the medium with the intact stamens standing freely above the medium surface (vertical culture). (2) The spikelets were manipulated similarly but placed horizontally on the medium so that their anthers were directly contacted with the latter ('horizontal culture'). (3) The anthers were excised and inoculated separately (anther culture). In all cases the pollen stage at inoculation was in late uninucleate. N6 basic medium supplemented with or without MCPA (2 ppm) was used. After inoculation the samples were collected periodically for cytological observation. In all cases the pollen passed a short stage of gametophytic development, forming a vegetative and a generative cell, then various pathways commenced in different cultures. In vertical culture, most of the pollen went on .along. the gametophytic pathway up to normal 3-celled stage, but some showed anomalous divisions of vegetative or/and generative nuclei, indicating an initiation of sporophytic development. In horizontal culture, the sporophytic deve]opment went on further, producing some calluses, though the main pollen population remained as gametophyte. In anther culture, the gametophytic pathway to a mature 3-celled pollen was blocked, the unique pathway being sporophytic. In rice, the pollen developed along sporophytic path- way mainly via A route. These comparative investigations indicate that there are two chief factors concerning the switch of pollen development from one pathway to another: first, to be freed from the in vivo restrictions, which, as suggested by Sunderland and as sup- ported by the results of vertical culture in our experiments, is sufficient to trigger the first sporophytic division, and second, 'direct contact with the medium, which is necessary to support the successive growth of multicellular grains and calluses. As to the exogenous hormone, rather than functioning as an agent triggering sporophytic development, it plays an important role in increasing eventual induction frequency, growth rates and differentiating ability of calluses.