Studies for many years have indicated that the seed yield of ( Glycine max L. Merr.) soybean can be increased by increasing photosynthetic efficiency. The yield of cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency (HPE) increased by 30%-40% in comparison with the cultivars with normal photosynthetic efficiency, indicating that the breeding of soybean by increasing HPE may have a bright prospect. HPE breeding can be used as the temporal monitoring in the breeding process to avoid the divergency of the predetermined goal, although HPE breeding does not shorten the breeding time. It was observed that limited C4 pathway exists in soybean leaf and pod, suggesting that by increasing the genetic expression of some C4 enzymes in C3 crops through traditional or genetic engineering techniques, new breakthroughs in increasing the photosynthetic efficiency of C3 plant may be practicable in the future.
郝乃斌1* 杜维广2 戈巧英1 张桂茹2 李卫华1 满为群2 彭德川1 白克智1 匡廷云1
摘要：多年的研究证明,提高光合效率是提高大豆产量的重要途径.在高产条件下,高光效大豆(Glycine max L. Merr.)品种与一般品种相比可提高产量30%～40%,表明高光效育种有着广阔的发展前景.高光效育种虽然未能缩短育种时间,但为达到预定的高光效目标提供了"实时"监测,可免除目标的偏离,从而达到高光效与高产的同步提高.大豆叶片与豆荚均存在着高活性的有限的C4途径循环,因此,通过常规育种或基因工程技术提高C4途径酶的表达能力,可能是提高C3植物光合效率的新突破点.
关键词 大豆 C4途径酶 高光效育种
A cytological study on Apluda mutica L. revealed that this species was a facultative apomict with 60.74% of apomictic embryo sac formation. Its sexual reproduction exhibited the characteristics of polygonum type embryo sac formation. After the 3 megaspores at the micropylar end had degenerated, leaving only the chalazal megaspore in the nucellus, a nucellar cell adjacent to the megaspore differentiated into an aposporous initial, which later developed into a panicum type embryo sac. It was an aposporous 4 nucleate embryo sac without chromosome reduction and composed of an egg, a single synergid and a central cell with 2 polar nuclei. The chalazal megaspore degenerated before the onset of the division in the aposporous initial cell.
马三梅1,2 叶秀粦1* 赵南先1 梁承邺1
摘要：对水蔗草(Apluda mutica L.)的生殖方式进行研究,结果表明水蔗草进行兼性无融合生殖.胚囊发育分为两种类型,即有性生殖的蓼型和无孢子生殖的大黍型.无融合生殖胚囊频率为60.74%.在大孢子母细胞发育至四分体后,珠孔端的3个大孢子解体.合点端的大孢子未解体时,邻近大孢子的1个珠心细胞开始特化,形成无融合生殖的原始细胞,由该原始细胞发育形成有1个卵细胞、1个助细胞和2个极核的四核胚囊.
关键词 水蔗草 兼性无融合生殖 胚胎学 无孢子生殖
Changes of calmodulin (CaM) distribution in the embryo sac of rice (Oryza sativa subsp.japonica) at various stages before and after fertilization have been investigated by using immunogold electron microscopy. Before pollination, both cytoplasm and vacuoles of the egg cell, synergids and central cell were labeled by gold particles. A small amount of gold particles were localized in then ucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and dictyosomes. From pollination to fertilization, CaM amount increased in these cells, especially rich in the starch of amyloplasts. Increase of gold particles in the central cell began about 2 h earlier than that in the egg cell. There was no distinct difference of CaM amount between the degenerated and the persistent synergids. It is interesting to observe an obvious change of CaM distribution form during pollination and fertilization from scattered single particles to clustered particles, and back again to single particles after the fertilization finished. CaM was also localized extracellularly in the embryo sac wall as well as in the wall and intercellular space of nucellus cells. The extracellular CaM also changes in its amount and form after pollination. These results suggest that CaM, either intra or extra cellular, may play important roles in fertilization and zygote formation.
杨军 赵洁 梁世平 杨弘远*
摘要：用胶体金免疫电镜技术观察了水稻(Oryza sativa subsp. japonica)受精前后胚囊内钙调素的分布变化.授粉后,卵细胞、助细胞和中央细胞内的钙调素较授粉前均有所增加.中央细胞内钙调素的增加要比卵细胞中约早2 h,退化助细胞与宿存助细胞之间的钙调素含量无明显差异.授粉到受精期间,钙调素的主要分布形式由分散的单颗粒转变为聚集颗粒,受精完成后再变为分散的单颗粒形式.胚囊壁及珠心细胞的细胞壁和胞间隙中也观察到钙调素的分布和数量变化.初步讨论了胞内和胞外钙调素在水稻受精与合子形成中的作用.
关键词 钙调素 授粉 受精 水稻 胚囊 免疫金电镜技术
The time course of the initiation of different types of apical primordia on the stem of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated to establish a comprehensive pattern of apical primordium development and quantitative dynamic relationships among different primordium initiation. The results showed that the initiation of leaf and bracteal primordia took the S shape, and that of spikelet and floret took the rise stage of parabolic shape in relation to GDD (growing degree days after sowing) in wheat. The bracteal was much like vegetative rather than reproductive organ in terms of the dynamic pattern of primordium initiation. The progress of spikelet and floret primordium initiation could well reflect the characteristics of different genotypes and the impact of different ecological environments on wheat apical development. The integrated model of different primordium initiation in shoot of wheat was an S shaped curvilinear, and could be divided into three sub models. The number of leaf primordia was affected by both genotype and environment, while the numbers of bracteal, spikelet and floret primordia were affected mainly by environmental factors. Measured with mean thermochron, the rates of initiation of leaf, bracteal and spikelet primordia in normal planting were the highest among all the sowing date treatments. In contrast to the relationships among leaf, bracteal, spikelet and their initiation duration, the correlation between the number of floret and its initiation duration was highly significant.
李存东1,2 曹卫星1* 张月辰2
摘要：研究了小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)茎顶端不同类型原基分化的动态过程,以明确原基分化的综合模式,并建立了不同原基分化之间的定量关系.结果表明,小麦叶原基和苞叶原基分化与播后累积生长度日(GDD, growing degree days after sowing)的关系呈S形曲线,而小穗原基和小花原基为上升段抛物曲线.从分化模式看,苞叶原基具备营养器官原基特征;小穗和小花原基的分化进程能较好地反映基因型和生态条件对顶端发育的影响.小麦茎顶端原基分化的综合模式为由三段子模式构成的近似S曲线.叶原基数由基因型和环境条件共同决定,而苞叶原基、小穗原基和小花原基数以环境因子的影响为主.以平均热间距来衡量,适期播种处理的叶片、苞叶和小穗原基分化速率最高;而小花原基数与小花分化持续期之间的数量关系最为密切.研究结果有助于揭示和理解小麦茎顶端发育的生物学规律.
关键词 小麦 茎顶端 原基分化 综合模式 动态特征
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Using various high yield rices (Oryza sativa L.) such as japonica cultivar 9516, two parental line hybrid rice between subspecies with more japonica element Peiai 64/E32, Liangyoupeijiu (Peiai 64/9311)，and indica hybrid rices X07S/Zihui 100, Gangyou 881， Shanyou 63 as the materials, the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane lipid peroxidation of detached leaves at booting stage under photooxidation conditions were studied. In comparison with indica hybrid rice, after the photooxidation treatment, the primary photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm), quantum yield of linear electron transport of PSⅡ (ΦPSⅡ) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) in japonica cultivar and hybrid rice with japonica decreased less. This indicated that high yield rice with japonica was able to maintain higher capability of light energy conversion, resulting in the alleviation of photoinhibition. Meanwhile, the higher activities of protective enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) led to the less accumulation of endogenous active oxygen (O SX(B-*3 - · SX) 2、H2O2) and less content of the malondialdehyde (MDA) and the less decline of chlorophyll and protein contents, indicating a stronger tolerance to photooxidation. The changes in contents of chlorophyll and protein among various rice cultivars during photooxidation treatment were consistent with the decline of chlorophyll content from heading stage to maturation stage under natural conditions. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the indexes of tolerance to photooxidation and the rate of seed setting, implying that the cultivar tolerated to photooxidation had higher resistance to early aging of leaf. These results suggested that from a view of superhigh yield breeding, considering both the utilization of heterosis and the resistance to early aging of leaf, introduction of japonica element tolerating to photooxidation into the rice sterile line (maternal plant) is a breeding strategy worthy to pay great attention to.
黄雪清 焦德茂* 李霞
摘要：用不同类型高产稻(Oryza sativa L.)粳稻9516、具有粳型成分的两系法亚种间杂交稻培矮64/E32、两优培九(培矮64/9311)和籼型杂交稻X07S/紫恢100、冈优881、汕优63为材料,研究了孕穗期叶片在光氧化条件下的叶绿素荧光特性和膜脂过氧化表现.光氧化处理后,与籼型杂交稻比较,粳稻和具有粳型组分的亚种间杂交稻的PSⅡ原初光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、PSⅡ的线性电子传递的量子效率(ΦPSⅡ)和光化学猝灭系数(qP)下降的较少;超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD)诱导的活性较高,活性氧 (O(-)/()2、H2O2)和丙二醛(MDA)的产生积累较少,叶绿素和蛋白质含量下降较少,表现出耐光氧化特性,这与在自然条件下生育后期叶绿素含量变化相一致.相关分析表明它们的耐光氧化特性与结实率密切相关,说明耐光氧化品种抗早衰,有利籽粒充实.这些结果启示我们:从超高产育种出发,兼顾杂种优势利用和抗早衰两方面考虑,在母本不育系中引入粳型成分是一个值得重视的育种策略.
关键词 水稻 光氧化 叶绿素荧光 膜脂过氧化
*通讯作者 Email: email@example.com
The influences of exogenous H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA) treatments on the alternative respiratory pathway (ARP) in aged potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber slices were compared. The results showed that both H2O2(5.0 mmol/L) and SA (0.1 mmol/L) treatments had a significant inducing effect on ARP capacity (Valt) and its ratio to total respiration (Valt/Vt) in potato slices aged for 24 h. With a monoclonal antibody against the alternative oxidase (AOX), Western blotting results showed that both H2O2 and SA treatments increased the AOX expression levels in aged potato tuber slices. However, the results of oxygen isotope discrimination experiments showed that H2O2 had no influence on the in vivo ARP activity (ρValt) and its contribution to Vt(expressed as ρValt/Vt) in potato slices aged for 24 h, but SA had a significant influence on the ρValt and ρValt/Vt values of the aged potato tuber slices. These results indicate that there are differences between the effects of H2O2 and SA on ARP in plant tissues. Both of them possess the ability to induce ARP capacity through inducing AOX expression. However, SA can simultaneously stimulate the operation of ARP, but H2O2 can not.
摘要：外源5.0 mmol/L H2O2和0.1 mmol/L 水杨酸(salicylic acid, SA)处理均可明显提高陈化24 h的马铃薯切片的交替呼吸途径容量(Valt)及其与总呼吸的比值(Valt/Vt).应用交替氧化酶的单克隆抗体进行Western杂交的结果表明,H2O2和SA处理均可明显提高陈化马铃薯切片中交替氧化酶的表达水平.用氧同位素分辨法研究,结果表明:H2O2处理对陈化马铃薯切片中交替呼吸途径的实际运行没有影响,而SA处理对交替呼吸途径的实际运行具有明显的促进作用.上述结果表明,H2O2和SA对植物组织交替呼吸途径的影响存在差异,二者均可促进交替氧化酶的表达从而诱导交替呼吸途径容量的发生,但H2O2不影响其实际运行,而SA还可同时诱导其实际运行.
关键词 交替呼吸途径 H2O2 水杨酸 陈化马铃薯切片
H+ ATPase activity of tonoplast in roots of Hordeum vulgare L. cv.“Tanyin 2" (salt tolerant cultivar) increased when the roots were exposed to 50-200 mmol/L NaCl for 2 d, and decreased when NaCl concentration was increased to 600 mmol/L. In “Kepin 7" (salt sensitive cultivar), tonoplast H+ ATPase activity in roots also increased at lower levels of NaCl (50-100 mmol/L), but decreased at higher levels of NaCl (200-600 mmol/L). Tonoplast fluidity in roots of“Tanyin 2" decreased at 50-200 mmol/L NaCl, and increased significantly at 600 mmol/L NaCl. Under salt stress, the change of tonoplast fluidity was identical with that of the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in tonoplast lipid of barley roots. It is proposed that the increase of tonoplast fluidity due to increased degree of unsaturation of fatty acids is one of the reasons leading to the decrease of H+ ATPase activity under higher level of NaCl stress.
章文华1 陈沁2 刘友良1
摘要：用50～200 mmol/L NaCl处理2 d后,大麦(Hordeum vulgare L.)品种"滩引2号"(耐盐性强)根的液泡膜H+-ATPase活性增强,600 mmol/L NaCl处理下酶活性下降;"科品7号"(耐盐性弱)在50～100 mmol/L NaCl处理2 d后根的液泡膜H+-ATPase活性增强,200～600 mmol/L NaCl处理下酶活性随盐浓度增加而降低.50～200 mmol/L NaCl处理下"滩引2号"根的液泡膜流动性下降,600 mmol/L NaCl处理下膜流动性明显增大;盐胁迫下液泡膜膜脂脂肪酸不饱和度下降时,膜流动性下降,反之则膜流动性上升.由此推断高盐胁迫下液泡膜膜脂脂肪酸不饱和度上升而引起膜流动性上升可能是引起H+-ATPase活性下降的原因之一.
关键词 盐胁迫 H+-ATPase 膜流动性 脂肪酸组分 大麦
A mutant UW3, which is unable to fix N2 in the presence of Mo (Nif-) but can undergo phenotypic reversal to Nif+ under Mo deficient conditions, was able to grow in Cr containing but Mo and NH3 deficient medium. A partly purified nitrogenase component Ⅰ protein obtained from UW3 grown on the Cr containing medium was shown to contain Fe and Cr (atom ratio of Fe to Cr and Mo to Cr: 11.60 and 0.41) and to have 70% of the C2H2 and H+ reduction activity of MoFe protein from the wild type strain of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann. The Cr containing protein was different in subunit composition from that of MnFe protein purified from the mutant strain grown in the presence of Mn, but similar to that of MoFe protein, that is, it was a tetramer composed of two differentsubunits (α2β2). The preliminary results indicated that the Cr containing protein might be a nitrogenase component Ⅰ protein.
黄巨富 董志刚 张华峰* 吕玉兵 赵颖 汪志平
摘要：在含Mo固氮培养基中不能生长而在无Mo条件下可固氮生长的固氮菌(Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann)突变种UW3, 能在无Mo而含Cr的无氮培养基中生长.从菌体中分离得到的部分纯固氮酶组分Ⅰ蛋白含有Cr和Fe 原子(Fe/Mo/Cr为11.60∶0.41∶1.00),并能表达相当于棕色固氮菌野生型固氮菌MoFe蛋白对乙炔和质子还原的70%的活性.与从Mn中生长的UW3菌体中所提取纯化的MnFe蛋白不同,这种含铬蛋白与MoFe蛋白(α2β2)一样,是由两种亚基组成的四聚体.初步结果表明,这种含Cr蛋白可能是一种固氮酶组分Ⅰ蛋白.
关键词 固氮酶 含铬蛋白 突变种UW3
A double haploid (DH) population of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) derived from anther culture of ZYQ8/JX17, a typical indica and japonica hybrid, was used for genetic analysis of rice peduncle vascular system and panicle traits. The number of large vascular bundles (LVB), the number of small vascular bundles (SVB) in the peduncle, and the panicle traits including the number of primary rachis branches (PRB), the number of spikelets per panicle (SNP), peduncle top diameter (PTD), and panicle length (PL) were investigated in the parents and DH lines. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for each trait were analyzed based on the constructed molecular linkage map of this population. Three QTLs for LVB (qLVB 1, qLVB 6 and qLVB 7) were detected on chromosomes 1, 6, and 7, respectively. Two putative QTLs for SVB (qSVB 4 and qSVB 6) were mapped on chromosomes 4 and 6 respectively. Four QTLs (qPRB 4a, qPRB 4b, qPRB 6 and qPRB 7) on chromosomes 4, 6, and 7, respectively, were detected for PRB. Three QTLs (qSPN 4a, qSPN 4b and qSPN 6) were identified on chromosomes 4 and 6, respectively, which could significantly affect SPN. Five QTLs for PTD (qPTD 2, qPTD 5, qPTD 6, qPTD 8 and qPTD 12) were identified on chromosomes 2, 5, 6, 8, and 12, respectively. Three QTLs for PL (qPL 4, qPL 6 and qPL 8) were detected on chromosomes 4, 6, and 8, respectively. Clustering of QTLs, such as qLVB 6, qSVB 6, qSNP 6, qPTD 6, and qPL 6 detected in the interval G122 G1314b on chromosome 6, was found. These results suggest that some QTLs for peduncle vascular bundle system are possibly responsible for the panicle traits.
滕胜1,3 钱前1 曾大力1 国广泰史4 黄大年1,3 朱立煌2*
(1.中国水稻研究所农业部水稻生物学重点实验室,杭州,310006 ； 2. 中国科学院遗传研究所，北京 100101; 3.浙江大学生命科学学院,杭州,310029 ；4.日本国际农林水产研究中心,日本筑波)
摘要：以籼稻(Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica ZYQ8)和粳稻(O. sativa ssp. japonica JX17)的杂交F1代花培加倍的DH群体为材料考察了该群体的穗颈节大小维管束数、一次枝梗数、每穗颖花数、穗颈节顶部直径和穗长,并用该群体构建的分子图谱进行数量性状座位(QTL)分析.检测到控制大维管束的3个QTL (qLVB-1、qLVB-6和qLVB-7)分别位于第1、第6和第7染色体;控制小维管束的2个QTL (qSVB-4和qSVB-6)分别位于第4和第6染色体;控制一次枝梗的4个QTL (qPRB-4a、qPRB-4b、qPRB-6和qPRB-7)分别位于第4 (2个)、第6和第7染色体;每穗颖花数的3个QTL (qSPN-4a、qSPN-4b和 qSPN-6)分别位于第4 (2个)和第6染色体上;穗颈节顶部直径的5个QTL (qPTD-2、qPTD-5、qPTD-6、qPTD-8和qPTD-12)分别位于第2、第5、第6、第8和第12染色体;穗长的3个QTL (qPL-4、qPL-6和qPL-8)分别位于第4、第6、第8染色体上.其中qLVB-6、qSVB-6、qSPN-6、qPTD-6和qPL-6均位于第6染色体的G122-G1314b之间;qPL-8和qPTD-8位于第8染色体的GA408-BP127a之间;qPRB-4a和qSPN-4a位于第4染色体的G177-CT206之间;qPL-4和qSPN-4b位于第4染色体CT404-CT500之间;qSVB-4所在的区间与qPL-4、qSPN-4b和qPRB-4b所在的区间相邻.
关键词 水稻 穗颈维管束 穗部性状 QTL定位
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The material T240-6 derived from SC2 young embryo of the combination CA9211/RW15 (6D/6V alien substitution) was telosomic substitution line of 6VS identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) analysis. The 6VS was microdissected with a needle and transferred into a 0.5 mL Ep tube. In the “single tube”, all the subsequence steps were conducted. After two round of LA (Linker adaptor) PCR amplification, the size of PCR bands ranged from 100 to 3 000 bp, with predominate bands 600-1 500 bp. The products were confirmed by Southern blotting analysis using Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur. genomic DNA labeled with 32 P as probe. The PCR products were purified and ligated into clone vector—pGEM-T easy vector. Then, the plasmids were transformed into competence E. coli JM109 with cool CaCl2. It was estimated that there were more than 17 000 white clones in the library. The size of insert fragments distributed from 100-1 500 bp, with average of 600 bp. Using H. villosa genomic DNA as probe, dot blotting results showed that 37% clones displayed strong and medium positive signals, and 63% clones had faint or no signals. It is demonstrated that there were about 37% repeat sequence clones and 67% single/unique sequence clones in the library. Eight H. villosa specific clones were screened from the library, and two clones pHVMK22 and pHVMK134 were used for RFLP analysis and sequencing. Both of them were H. villosa specific clones. The pHVMK22 was a unique sequence clone, and the pHVMK134 was a repeat sequence clone. When the pHVMK22 was used as a probe for Southern hybridization, all the powdery mildew resistance materials showed a special band of 2 kb, while all the susceptible ones not. The pHVMK22 may be applied to detect the existence of Pm21.
孔凡晶 陈孝 马有志* 辛志勇 李连成 张增艳 林志姗
摘要：从簇毛麦(Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur.)组合CA9211/RW15(6D/6V异代换系)幼胚培养SC2后代中,用原位杂交方法鉴定出T240-6为6VS端体异代换系. 以此为材料,采用微细玻璃针切割法及"单管反应"技术体系,对6VS进行切割分离及LA (Linker adaptor)-PCR扩增.扩增带在100～3 000 bp 之间,大部分集中在600～1 500 bp.利用32P标记的簇毛麦基因组为探针进行Southern杂交,证实扩增产物来源于簇毛麦.扩增产物纯化后,连接到pGEM-T载体上,构建了6VS DNA质粒文库.对文库的分析表明,文库大约有17 000个白色克隆;插入片段分布在100～1 500 bp,平均600 bp.点杂交结果表明,37%克隆有中度到强烈的杂交信号,证明含有中度或高度重复序列;63%克隆有较弱的信号或没有信号,证明为单/低拷贝序列克隆.从文库中获得8个簇毛麦特异克隆,对其中两个克隆pHVMK22和 pHVMK134进行了RFLP分析和序列分析,并利用该探针对小麦抗白粉病基因Pm21进行了检测.RFLP 结果表明,两个克隆一个为低拷贝序列克隆(pHVMK22),另一个为高度重复序列克隆,均为簇毛麦专化DNA序列.以pHVMK22为探针对抗、感病小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)品系的Southern杂交发现抗病品系有一条2 kb的特征带, 该探针可能作为检测抗病基因Pm21的探针.
关键词 染色体显微切割及微克隆 簇毛麦 原位杂交 端体异代换系 专化DNA序列
*通讯作者 Email: email@example.com
The gene encoded for tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), which is the key enzyme in terpenoil indole alkaloids pathway, was targeted to different subcellular compartments and stably expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants at the levels detected by Western blot and tryptamine accumulation analysis. It was shown that the TDC was located in subcellular compartments, the chloroplasts and cytosol. The recombinant TDC targeted to chloroplasts and cytosol in tobacco plants was effectively expressed as soluble protein by Western blot analysis and enzymatic assay. The level of tryptamine accumulation in chloroplast was higher than that in cytosol and very low in vacuole and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to be hardly detected by Western blot analysis. It was indicated that the highest amount of tryptamine was in chloroplasts, lower in endoplasmic reticula and the lowest in vacuoles as compared to those in wild type plants. The TDC targeted to different subcellular compartments of tobacco plants and its expression level were studied by different nucleotide sequences coding signal peptides at 5′end of tdc gene in order to know the effects of the TDC in compartmentation on its functionality.
王淼1* 李秋荣2 Stefano Di DIORE3 Rainer FISCHER3
(1.中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所,沈阳,110016；2.沈阳军区总医院,沈阳,110016; 3.Botanical Institute of Rjeinisch -Westfaliusch Techniische Hochschule Aachen,D-52074 Aachen ,Germany)
摘要：将萜烯类吲哚生物碱代谢关键酶--色氨酸脱羧酶（TDC）的编码基因转到烟草（Nicotiana tabacum L.)植物体内，标定在不同的亚细胞区室表达。通过蛋白免疫印迹法和色胺在植物体内的累积量测定分析，对转基因植物进行筛选。结果表明，TDC在叶绿体和胞液中高效表达，TDC在叶绿体中的表达水平最高，高于在胞液中的表达，在内质网和液泡中表达水平很低，用蛋白免疫印迹法未检出。
关键词 色氨酸脱羧酶 生物碱代谢途径 烟草 亚细胞区室
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A full length cDNA has been cloned encoding nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) from Chlorella sorokiniana with the RT-PCR method. The complete nucleotide sequence of NADP-GDHgene had 94% homology to the previously reported one . The NADP-GDHgene was constructed into a vector highly expressed in plants. The specific activity of NADP-GDH in transformants was detected, but not in the control plants. All transformed shoots on MS medium containing lower concentration of nitrogen and the transformed seedlings grown in lower concentration of nitrogen vermiculite had higher growth rate and more leaves than the control plants. Transformed leaf discs cultured on MS medium containing different nitrogen concentrations had more chlorophyll contents compared to the controls. These results suggested that exogenous NADP-GDH may enhance the absorption and utilization to ammonium in plants. The increased weight of transformed leaf discs cultured on medium supplemented with different concentrations of phosphinothricin (PPT) was more than that of control discs.0.5 μg/mL PPT could be used as a selecting drug instead of kanamycin to develop the transformants. These results suggested that the NADP-GDH gene might besed as a new selecting gene in the future research of plant gene engineering.
黄国存 孟颂东 王荣 杨怀义 田波*
摘要：用RT-PCR方法从小球藻(Chlorella sorokiniana)中克隆了铵诱导表达的以辅酶Ⅱ为辅基的谷氨酸脱氢酶(NADP-GDH)基因的cDNA片段,DNA测序分析表明与已报道的该基因c DNA序列同源性为94%.将NADP-GDH基因先插入到SPDK621质粒的2CaMV35S启动子和Ω增强序列之后,然后将2CaMV35S-Ω-GDH-NOS表达单元构建到RokⅡ质粒的HindⅢ与Eco RⅠ之间,从而获得高效植物表达载体.将RokⅡ-GDH质粒转移到根癌土壤杆菌(Agro bacterium tumefaciens (Smith et Townsend) Conn) EHA105中,对烟草(Nico tiana tabacum L.)进行转化并得到阳性转化后代.对转基因烟草分析表明,在低氮培养基或在低氮蛭石中其生长速度和叶片数明显高于对照;铵毒性实验表明,无论在低铵或高铵条件下,接种在MS固化培养基上的转基因绿叶圆片存活时间长,叶绿素含量高.这些结果说明外源NADP-GDH增强了植物对氮素的吸收和利用.另外,转化后代还表现了对除草剂膦化麦黄酮(PPT)具有较强的抗性;培养在含有不同浓度PPT的MS固化培养基上的转基因绿叶圆片,其愈伤化程度明显高于对照;在MS培养基中用0.5 μg/mL 的PPT可以代替卡那霉素对转化后代进行筛选,这暗示 NADP-GDH基因可以作为一种新的选择标记用于植物基因工程的研究.
关键词 谷氨酸脱氢酶 转基因烟草 氮素吸收 膦化 麦黄酮抗性
To isolate genes related to resistance to Erysiphe graminis DC. ex Merat f.sp. tritici Em. Marchal in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), differential display analysis was conducted for mRNA extracted from the seedlings of the wheat Haynaldia villosa 6VS/6A L translocation line 92R137 that contains the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21. A full length cDNA named TaPK1 was isolated. BLAST analysis revealed that it was significantly homologous to Glycine max (L.) Merr. protein kinase (GmPK6) cDNA. TaPK1 encodes a 416 amino acid long polypeptide, which belongs to serine/threonine protein kinase family, also has tyrosine kinase specificity. TaPK1 is a novel protein kinase from wheat.
牛吉山 于玲 马正强 陈佩度* 刘大钧
用mRNA差异显示技术在含有抗白粉病基因Pm21的小麦(Tri ticum aestivum L.) -簇毛麦(Haynaldia villosa) 6VS /6AL易位系92R137中分离与抗白粉病相关的基因,获得一个命名为TaPK1的全长cDNA克隆.序列分析表明,它与大豆(Glycine max (L.) Merr.)蛋白激酶基因GmPK6高度同源.经推测,TaPK1 编码416个氨基酸的多肽,属丝氨酸-苏氨酸蛋白激酶家族,并具酪氨酸激酶特性.TaPK1是从小麦中分离的新基因.
关键词 小麦 白粉病 蛋白激酶
*通讯作者 Email: email@example.com
To reveal how a large gene family evolved in the highly organized genome, the present study sequenced 294 copies of 5S rRNA genes from six individuals of three populations of Ophiopogon xylorrhizusWang et Dai, and 45 copies from its closest species, O. sylvicola Wang et Tang. Based on the sequences the gene phylogeny was inferred through PAUP. The sequences were highly diversified. Of the 339 randomly cloned copies, only 13 pairs (3.8%) were identical, with length varied between 307-548 bp (average 438.6 bp). The sequence differentiation index (SDI) in O. xylorrhizus was 0.078, in O. sylvicolawas 0.032, and between these two species was 0.149. In the most parsimonious tree reconstructed, all of the 294 copies of O. xylorrhizus were grouped into one clade, and those of O. sylvicola were grouped into another clade with 100% bootstrap support. The result demonstrated that the copies of 5S rRNA genes originated from just one progenitor copy, “founder copy", in both of the species respectively, followed by a series of proliferation, and little, if any, homogenization ever occurred in the copies. As the common ancestor of the two species must have borne multiple copies of the genes, all the other copies were lost during or after the speciation. Additionally, the phylogeny clearly showed that the founder copy was proliferated continuously through time, not just once. O. xylorrhizus is an extremely endangered species in which high genetic diversity, selfing and depression on seedlings were observed previously. In our study the sequences from different populations or different individuals were mixed in the branches of the O. xylorrhizus clade, although they evolved independently. It is assumed that gene flow of the species happened much more frequently in the past, making the proliferated copies dispersed to different populations, and the species maintained an amount of genetic diversity. Therefore, the selfing and seedling depression would be the result of a recent event. We suggest that some changes in outer mechanisms, such as the pollinators or seed dispersers, might cause the species selfed, depressed and, finally, endangered.
为了揭示多拷贝基因的进化方式, 对濒危植物木根麦冬(Ophiopogon xylorrhizus Wang et Dai) 3个居群、6个个体的294个5S rR NA 基因拷贝及其姐妹种林生麦冬(O. sylvicola Wang et Tang)的45个拷贝进行了DNA测序和序列分析,并以这个迄今发表的最大的单个物种的5S rRNA基因数据,以PAUP程序重建了分子系统发育树.结果表明: 1)所得序列呈高度多样性,长度变化在307～548碱基之间,仅13对(3.8%)相同,序列分化指数较高:木根麦冬是0.078,林生麦冬是0.032,两物种间是0.149; 2)100%的统计值支持两物种的5S rRNA 基因分别来自于祖先种的一个拷贝,即"建立者拷贝",这个拷贝在物种形成之后进行了一系列连续的扩增,形成一个直系的基因家族,而祖先种的其他拷贝在物种形成后被丢失; 3)不同拷贝是独立进化的,序列间的一致化过程很弱,这在串联重复的rR N A基因中是罕见的; 4)木根麦冬居群间曾存在频繁的基因交流,使5S rRNA 基因的许多拷贝扩散于不同居群,维持着种内较高的遗传多样性.可以认为是某些近期发生的变化,阻止了居群间的基因交流,导致该物种广泛的自交,发生自交衰退,并最后导致濒危.
关键词 木根麦冬 林生麦冬 5S rRNA 进化 系统 发育
Hedysarum laeve Maxim. (Leguminosae) is one of the major species used frequently in revegetation of dune field in the sandlands of the northern part of China by means of aerial sowing. Seedlings of the species after emergence above the sand surface may be buried in sand to various depths during its establishment in late spring and early summer. A study was made to examine the effects of sand burial at different levels of 0 (control), 33%, 67%, 100% and 133% of their shoot height, on the survivorship, growth, and biomass allocation pattern of H. laeve seedlings (one and two weeks old after emergence). When burial depth was up to 100% of their shoot height, about 70% seedlings died; and the burial at depth of 133% of their shoot height led to death of all seedlings. When seedlings was buried at depth of 33% and 67% of their shoot height, respectively, after six week growth, their biomass of whole plant, blade, and root and relative growth rate were higher than the unburied counterparts. The seedlings in both 33% and 67% sand burial treatments did not significantly change their biomass allocation pattern comparing with the unburied ones. Furthermore, the number of leaves and shoot height of the seedlings in both 33% and 67% sand burial treatments were not significantly different from those of unburied individuals, respectively. The newly born leaves of the surviving seedlings, in 33%, 67%, and 100% burial treatments, during the period of experiment, were significantly more than those in control.
张称意1,2 于飞海1 董鸣1*
羊柴(Hedysarum laeve Maxim.)是中国北方沙地飞播进行植被恢复与重建的主要植物种.在晚春与夏初的出苗期 ,羊柴幼苗经常遭受不同深度的沙埋.研究旨在探明沙埋对羊柴幼苗存活、生长和生物量分配格局的影响.6周的沙埋试验结果显示:当沙埋深度达到其株高时,约有70%的幼苗死亡 ;沙埋深度达到其株高的133%时,可使羊柴幼苗全部死亡;沙埋深度分别为株高的33%和67% 时,羊柴幼苗的整株生物量、叶片生物量、根系生物量以及相对生长率都相应地高于非沙埋的对照(即:0%沙埋).与非沙埋的对照相比,羊柴幼苗在33%和67%沙埋条件下并不显著地改变其生物量分配格局;并且羊柴幼苗的叶数和株高与对照无明显差异,但试验期内的新生叶数是沙埋处理(即:33%、67%和100%沙埋)的幼苗明显地高于非沙埋的对照.
关键词 羊柴 沙地 沙埋 幼苗 生长 存活 生物量 分配 相对生长率
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A new glycoside, γ-pyranone-3-O-β-D-［6′-(4″-hydroxy-3″,5″-dimethyoxybenzoyl)］ glucopyranoside (erigeside D, 2), together with nine known compounds, viz., erigeside Ⅰ (1), erigeside A (3), erigeside B (4), erigeside Ⅱ (5), scopolin (6), icariside B2(7), blumenol C glucoside (8),(+)-syringaresinol- O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9) and scutellarein –7-O-β-D-glucuronide methyl ester (10), was isolated from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral evidence.According to the β-glucopyranosyl moiety in 7, the absolute configuration of 7 was determined by X ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 7, 8 and 9 were isolated for the first time from this genus, and compound 6 was first obtained from this plant.
陈斌 李伯刚 张国林*
从灯盏花(Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz.)全株的乙醇提取物的正丁醇部分分得10个化合物,通过波谱方法鉴定为erigeside Ⅰ (1)、γ-吡喃酮-3-O-β-D-[6′-(4″-羟基-3″,5″-二甲氧基苯甲酰)-]-吡喃葡萄糖苷(eriges ide D, 2)、erigeside A (3)、erigeside B (4)、erigesi de Ⅱ (5)、 7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖-6-甲氧基香豆素(6)、 icariside B2 (7)、 blumenol C 葡萄糖苷(8)、 (+) -丁香树酯醇 O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(9)和野黄芩苷甲酯(10).用X射线单晶衍射方法确定了化合物7的绝对构型.2是一个新化合物,7、8和9首次从该属植物分离得到,6首次从该种植物分离得到.
关键词 菊科 灯盏花 γ-吡喃酮-3-O-β-D-[6 ′-(4″-羟基-3″,5″-二甲氧基苯甲酰)]-吡喃葡萄糖苷
*通讯作者 Email: email@example.com
Four phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, named tylophoridicine A (1),tylophorinine (2),O methyl tylophorinidine (3) and tylophorinidine (4), were isolated from the roots of Tylophora ovata (Lindl.) Hook. ex Steud. Using modern NMR techniques including NOESY and 1H-NMR line broadening effect experiments, CD spectra and MS analysis as well as chemical methods, their structures were identified as (13aR)-6 –hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-phenanthroindolizidine (1),-(13aS,14R)-14-hydroxy-3,6,7 –trimethoxy-phenanthro-indolizidine (2), (13aS,14S)-14-hydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxy -phenanthroindolizidine (3), and (13aS,14S)-6,14-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy phenanthroindolizidine (4) respectively. Compound 1 is a new compound, compounds 2-4 are obtained from this plant for the first time. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 showed strong antitumor activities.
甄月英 黄学石 于德泉 庾石山*
从卵叶娃儿藤(Tylophora ovata (Lindl.) Hook. ex Steud.)根中分离得到 4个菲骈吲哚里西丁类生物碱,分别为tylophoridicine A (1)、娃儿藤宁(2)、氧甲基娃儿藤定(3)和娃儿藤定(4).经波谱分析并结合化学方法鉴定,其结构分别为:(13aR)-6-羟基-3,7-二甲氧基菲骈吲哚里西丁、 (13aS ,14R)-14-羟基-3,6,7-三甲氧基-菲骈吲哚里西丁、(13aS, 14S)-14-羟基-3,6,7-三甲氧基-菲骈吲哚里西丁和(13 aS,14S)-6,14-二羟基-3,7-二甲氧基-菲骈吲哚里西丁.化合物1为新化合物,化合物2-4为首次从该植物得到的化合物.经药理筛选,化合物1、3和4显示很强的抗癌活性.
关键词 卵叶娃儿藤 菲骈吲哚里西丁类生物碱 tyl ophoridicine A 娃儿藤宁 氧甲基娃儿藤定 娃儿藤定 抗肿瘤
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A new compound (1) named as winchic acid and eight known ones were isolated from the stem barks of Winchia calophylla A. DC. (collected in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province of China). The new compound 1 was identified as 3β-hydroxy-27-(4-hydroxy –3-methoxy-E-cinnamoyloxy)-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The eight known compounds were determined to be lupenone, lupenyl acetate, betulinic acid, α amyrin acetate, ursolic acid, ptiloepoxide, β-amyrin and cycloeucalenol, respectively.
朱伟明1,2 沈月毛1 洪鑫1 左国营1 杨小生1 郝小江1*
摘要：从傣族药用植物盆架树(Winchia calophylla A. DC.)茎皮的石油醚可溶部分分离到9个化合物,经现代波谱技术证明,其中之一为新化合物,命名为盆架酸(winchic acid).另8个已知化合物分别为羽扇豆烯酮、乙酸羽扇豆酯、桦木酸、乙酸-α-香树醇酯、乌索酸、ptiloepoxide、β-香树醇和cycloeucalenol.
关键词 三萜 盆架酸 盆架树 夹竹桃科
*通讯作者 Email: email@example.com
A new triterpenoid saponin, namely unifloroside, together with five known compounds, was isolated from Rhaponticum uniflorum (L.) DC. The structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-urs-9(11),12-dien-28 oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester mainly by using 1D, 2D-NMR techniques and chemical methods.
张永红1 芦志刚2 李新圃2 汪汉卿1*
从祁州漏芦(Rhaponticum uniflorum (L.) DC.)的根中分离得到6个三萜皂甙(1～6),其中化合物3为一新的三萜皂甙,命名为unifloroside,其结构经1D, 2D-NMR及化学方法鉴定为3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-urs-9(11),12-dien-28-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester.
关键词 祁州漏芦 菊科 三萜皂甙
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The isolated and anatomically preserved lepidodendralean leaf cushions were described from coal balls in Wangjiazhai Formation (upper Upper Permian) in western Guizhou Province. These leaf cushions are very similar to Lepidodendron lepidophloides Yao both in size and morphology. They probably belong to the same species in different preservative condition. Comparisons on morphology and anatomy of L. lepidophloides and lepidodendralean leaf cushion genera, such as Lepidodendron, Lepidophloios, Sigillaria and Cathaysiodendron revealed that L. lepidophloides possesses mixed features of all these genera and it can not be assigned into any of them without doubt. It probably represents a new genus. Because the anatomical features of the other parts of the stem as well as the fertile organs related to these leaf cushions are unknown, the specific name L. lepidophloides is adopted. We leave this taxonomic problem open till the relationship between these leaf cushions and the stem and fertile organs become clear. This is the first report on the detailed anatomical features of the Cathaysian lepidodendraleanleaf cushions.
鳞皮鳞木Lepidodendron lepidophloides Yao叶座的解剖构造
王士俊1 田宝霖2 陈贵仁2
摘要：描述了贵州水城矿区汪家寨组(晚二叠世晚期)煤核中一种脱落的具解剖构造的鳞木类叶座.这些叶座在大小和形态上与鳞皮鳞木(Lepidodendron lepidophloides Yao)很相似,很可能属于同一种植物的不同保存类型的叶座.将鳞皮鳞木与已知几个鳞木类植物叶座属,如鳞木属、鳞皮木属、封印木属和华夏木属进行了对比,认为鳞皮鳞木具有这几个属的混合特征,将其归入上述任何一属似乎都不太妥当.该类植物有可能代表了一个新属.由于茎的其他部分构造不明以及这些叶座与生殖构造的联系目前尚不清楚,因此,本文暂时采用鳞皮鳞木这一种名,其确切归属留待对其茎的其他部分的解剖构造以及与生殖器官之间的联系都清楚了以后再行决定.首次较详细地报道华夏植物区鳞木类植物叶座的解剖构造.
关键词 华夏植物群 晚二叠世 煤核 鳞皮鳞木 叶座 解剖
Pollen analysis of 30 modern water samples from the Shiyang River, aninternal river system located between the Tengger and Badain Jaran deserts, Northwest China was carried out to examine the river's capacity to carry pollen and spores, and to assess the contribution of the water borne pollen to pollen assemblages in lake sediments at the end of the river system. Results indicate the pollen assemblages in water samples consist of both local and upland pollen. Percentages of upland pollen reach 30%-60%, and pollen assemblages in water samples do not indicate the nature of local vegetation at the sampling sites. Fluvial currents have the capacity to transport large quantities of pollen long distances, and the contribution of this fluvial transported pollen is relatively high. For example, percentages of Picea Dietr. pollen in water samples at sampling sites 130 km and 145 km away from Picea forests reach 16.5% and 7.7%, respectively. Fluvial pollen transport occurs primarily during flood periods, and pollen concentrations from the flood samples are 17.1-12.5 times those from normal fluvial flow. Reservoirs affect pollen transportation since pollen is deposited at reservoir inlets and pollen concentrations are much reduced at reservoir outlets. Human activity can thus change natural features of pollen transportation and deposition. The main factors influencing pollen concentrations and assemblages are sampling time, sampling location, and rainfall intensity.
朱艳1,2 陈发虎1,3 程波1 张家武1 David B MADSEN1,4
(1.兰州大学西部环境教育部重点实验室,兰州,730000；2.西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州,730070；3.兰州大学干旱农业国家重点实验室,兰州,730000; 4. Uath,Geological,Survey,Salt,Lake,City,Uath,84114,USA)
摘要：石羊河流域初春和仲夏两季不同地点,洪水期、平水期30个河水样孢粉分析显示, 没有人类影响的情况下,河水样孢粉组合是由河流上游径流区的植物孢粉和采样点附近植被孢粉组成的,前者在孢粉组合中至少占30%～60%.河水搬运孢粉的能力非常强,可长距离、大量地搬运孢粉.孢粉组合中河水贡献孢粉的含量较高,如:云杉属(Picea Dietr.)花粉河水的贡献率在中下游可达16.5%和7.7%.采样时间、地点影响河水的孢粉组合和浓度,洪水期是孢粉搬运的主要时期.河水经过水库后,其中孢粉绝大多数沉积在水库中.
关键词 孢粉分析 现代河水 石羊河 干旱区
魏文辉1 覃瑞1 宋运淳1* 宁顺斌1 郭乐群2 谷明光2
摘要：用来自玉米(Zea mays L.)与二倍体多年生类玉米(Z. diploperennis Iltis, Doebley and Guzmán)杂交的孤雌生殖后代同一抗病个体的4个株系进行了基因组原位杂交,用改进的杂交技术获得了近100%的检出率,每一检出片段在同源染色体两成员和每两个姊妹染色单体上均有清晰的信号.
关键词 玉米 二倍体多年生类玉米 渗入片段 基因组原位杂交
*通讯作者 Email: email@example.com
戴均贵 巩卓 朱丹萌 郭洪祝 郑俊华 果德安*
应用长春花(Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don)悬浮细胞培养体系对天麻素进行了生物转化反应研究.经过8 d培养形成一个转化产物,应用光谱方法鉴定转化产物的结构为对羟基苯甲醇,为天麻素水解后形成的甙元.
关键词 天麻素 生物转化 悬浮培养细胞 长春花
*通讯作者 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
For Upcoming Special lssue: