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    Protein kinases in plant responses to drought, salt, and cold stress
    Xuexue Chen, Yanglin Ding, Yongqing Yang, Chunpeng Song, Baoshan Wang, Shuhua Yang, Yan Guo and Zhizhong Gong
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (1): 53-78.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13061
    Abstract (Browse 1186)  |   Save
    Protein kinases are major players in various signal transduction pathways. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses has become critical for developing and breeding climate‐resilient crops. In this review, we summarize recent progress on understanding plant drought, salt, and cold stress responses, with a focus on signal perception and transduction by different protein kinases, especially sucrose nonfermenting1 (SNF1)‐related protein kinases (SnRKs), mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, calcium‐dependent protein kinases (CDPKs/CPKs), and receptor‐like kinases (RLKs). We also discuss future challenges in these research fields.
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    DEK43 is a P-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein responsible for the Cis-splicing of nad4 in maize mitochondria
    Ru Chang Ren, Li Li Wang, Lin Zhang, Ya Jie Zhao, Jia Wen Wu, Yi Ming Wei, Xian Sheng Zhang and Xiang Yu Zhao
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (3): 299-313.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12843
    Abstract (Browse 802)  |   Save

    Mitochondria, the main energy transducers in plant cells, require the proper assembly of respiratory chain complexes I–V for their function. The NADH dehydrogenase 4 (nad4) gene encodes mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I subunit IV, but the mechanism underlying nad4 transcript splicing is unclear. Here, we report that the P‐type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein DEFECTIVE KERNEL 43 (DEK43) is responsible for cis‐splicing of the nad4 transcript in maize. We demonstrate that DEK43 localizes to both the nucleus and mitochondria. The mutation of Dek43 resulted in embryo‐lethal and light‐colored defective kernels. Among the 22 mitochondrial group II introns, the splicing efficiency of nad4 introns 1 and 3 was reduced by up to 50% compared to the wild type. The levels of complex I and supercomplex I+III2 were also reduced in dek43. Furthermore, in‐gel NADH dehydrogenase assays indicated that the activities of these complexes were significantly reduced in dek43. Further, the mitochondrial ultrastructure was altered in the mutant. Together, our findings indicate that DEK43, a dual‐localized PPR protein, plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function and maize kernel development.

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    Contribution of phenylpropanoid metabolism to plant development and plant–environment interactions
    Nai-Qian Dong and Hong-Xuan Lin
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (1): 180-209.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13054
    Abstract (Browse 743)  |   Save
    Phenylpropanoid metabolism is one of the most important metabolisms in plants, yielding more than 8,000 metabolites contributing to plant development and plant–environment interplay. Phenylpropanoid metabolism materialized during the evolution of early freshwater algae that were initiating terrestrialization and land plants have evolved multiple branches of this pathway, which give rise to metabolites including lignin, flavonoids, lignans, phenylpropanoid esters, hydroxycinnamic acid amides, and sporopollenin. Recent studies have revealed that many factors participate in the regulation of phenylpropanoid metabolism, and modulate phenylpropanoid homeostasis when plants undergo successive developmental processes and are subjected to stressful environments. In this review, we summarize recent progress on elucidating the contribution of phenylpropanoid metabolism to the coordination of plant development and plant–environment interaction, and metabolic flux redirection among diverse metabolic routes. In addition, our review focuses on the regulation of phenylpropanoid metabolism at the transcriptional, post‐transcriptional, post‐translational, and epigenetic levels, and in response to phytohormones and biotic and abiotic stresses.
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    AtSec62 is critical for plant development and is involved in ER-phagy in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Shuai Hu, Hao Ye, Yong Cui and Liwen Jiang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (2): 181-200.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12872
    Abstract (Browse 616)  |   Save

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site for protein folding in eukaryotic cells. ER homeostasis is essential for the development of an organism, whereby the unfolded protein response (UPR) within the ER is precisely regulated. ER‐phagy is a newly identified selective autophagic pathway for removal of misfolded or unfolded proteins within the ER in mammalian cells. Sec62, a component of the translocon complex, was recently characterized as an ER‐phagy receptor during the ER stress recovery phase in mammals. In this study, we demonstrated that the Arabidopsis Sec62 (AtSec62) is required for plant development and might function as an ER‐phagy receptor in plants. We showed that AtSec62 is an ER‐localized membrane protein with three transmembrane domains (TMDs) with its C‐terminus facing to the ER lumen. AtSec62 is required for plant development because atsec62 mutants display impaired vegetative growth, abnormal pollen and decreased fertility. atsec62 mutants are sensitive towards tunicamycin (TM)‐induced ER stress, whereas overexpression of AtSec62 subsequently enhances stress tolerance during the ER stress recovery phase. Moreover, YFP‐AtSec62 colocalizes with the autophagosome marker mCh‐Atg8e in ring‐like structures upon ER stress induction. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the pivotal roles of AtSec62 in plant development and ER‐phagy.

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    GDSL esterase/lipases OsGELP34 and OsGELP110/OsGELP115 are essential for rice pollen development
    Huihui Zhang, Menglong Wang, Yiqi Li, Wei Yan, Zhenyi Chang, Haolin Ni, Zhufeng Chen, Jianxin Wu, Chunjue Xu, Xing Wang Deng and Xiaoyan Tang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (10): 1574-1593.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12919
    Abstract (Browse 605)  |   Save

    Pollen exine contains complex biopolymers of aliphatic lipids and phenolics. Abnormal development of pollen exine often leads to plant sterility. Molecular mechanisms regulating exine formation have been studied extensively but remain ambiguous. Here we report the analyses of three GDSL esterase/lipase protein genes, OsGELP34, OsGELP110, and OsGELP115, for rice exine formation. OsGELP34 was identified by cloning of a male sterile mutant gene. OsGELP34 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum protein and was mainly expressed in anthers during pollen exine formation. osgelp34 mutant displayed abnormal exine and altered expression of a number of key genes required for pollen development. OsGELP110 was previously identified as a gene differentially expressed in meiotic anthers. OsGELP110 was most homologous to OsGELP115, and the two genes showed similar gene expression patterns. Both OsGELP110 and OsGELP115 proteins were localized in peroxisomes. Individual knockout of OsGELP110 and OsGELP115 did not affect the plant fertility, but double knockout of both genes altered the exine structure and rendered the plant male sterile. OsGELP34 is distant from OsGELP110 and OsGELP115 in sequence, and osgelp34 and osgelp110/osgelp115 mutants were different in anther morphology despite both were male sterile. These results suggested that OsGELP34 and OsGELP110/OsGELP115 catalyze different compounds for pollen exine development.

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    Potassium and phosphorus transport and signaling in plants
    Yi Wang, Yi-Fang Chen and Wei-Hua Wu
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (1): 34-52.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13053
    Abstract (Browse 605)  |   Save
    Nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) are essential macronutrients for plant growth and development, and their availability affects crop yield. Compared with N, the relatively low availability of K and P in soils limits crop production and thus threatens food security and agricultural sustainability. Improvement of plant nutrient utilization efficiency provides a potential route to overcome the effects of K and P deficiencies. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying how plants sense, absorb, transport, and use K and P is an important prerequisite to improve crop nutrient utilization efficiency. In this review, we summarize current understanding of K and P transport and signaling in plants, mainly taking Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) as examples. We also discuss the mechanisms coordinating transport of N and K, as well as P and N.
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    ESCRT-dependent vacuolar sorting and degradation of the auxin biosynthetic enzyme YUC1 flavin monooxygenase
    Chennan Ge, Caiji Gao, Qingguo Chen, Liwen Jiang and Yunde Zhao
    J Integr Plant Biol 2019, 61 (9): 968-973.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12760
    Abstract (Browse 571)  |   Save

    YUC flavin monooxygenases catalyze the rate‐limiting step of auxin biosynthesis. Here we report the vacuolar targeting and degradation of GFP‐YUC1. GFP‐YUC1 fusion expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts or transgenic plants was primarily localized in vacuoles. Surprisingly, we established that GFP‐YUC1, a soluble protein, was sorted to vacuoles through the ESCRT pathway, which has long been recognized for sorting and targeting integral membrane proteins. We further show that GFP‐YUC1 was ubiquitinated and in this form GFP‐YUC1 was targeted for degradation, a process that was also stimulated by elevated auxin levels. Our findings revealed a molecular mechanism of GFP‐YUC1 degradation and demonstrate that the ESCRT pathway can recognize both soluble and integral membrane proteins as cargoes.

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    Abscisic acid signaling negatively regulates nitrate uptake via phosphorylation of NRT1.1 by SnRK2s in Arabidopsis
    Hang Su, Tian Wang, Chuanfeng Ju, Jinping Deng, Tianqi Zhang, Mengjiao Li, Hui Tian and Cun Wang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (3): 597-610.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13057
    Abstract (Browse 553)  |   Save
    Nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient for plant growth and productivity. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a vital role in nitrate uptake in fluctuating N environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of ABA in N deficiency responses are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ABA signaling components, particularly the three subclass III SUCROSE NON‐FERMENTING1 (SNF1)‐RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 2S (SnRK2) proteins, function in root foraging and uptake of nitrate under N deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. The snrk2.2snrk2.3snrk2.6 triple mutant grew a longer primary root and had a higher rate of nitrate influx and accumulation compared with wild‐type plants under nitrate deficiency. Strikingly, SnRK2.2/2.3/2.6 proteins interacted with and phosphorylated the nitrate transceptor NITRATE TRANSPORTER1.1 (NRT1.1) in vitro and in vivo. The phosphorylation of NRT1.1 by SnRK2s resulted in a significant decrease of nitrate uptake and impairment of root growth. Moreover, we identified NRT1.1Ser585 as a previously unknown functional site: the phosphomimetic NRT1.1S585D was impaired in both low‐ and high‐affinity transport activities. Taken together, our findings provide new insight into how plants fine‐tune growth via ABA signaling under N deficiency.
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    The rice PLATZ protein SHORT GRAIN6 determines grain size by regulating spikelet hull cell division
    Shi-Rong Zhou and Hong-Wei Xue
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (6): 847-864.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12851
    Abstract (Browse 550)  |   Save

    Grain size is a major determinant of cereal grain yields; however, the relevant regulatory mechanisms controlling this trait have not been fully elucidated. The rice (Oryza sativa ) mutant short grain6 (sg6 ) was identified based on its reduced grain length and weight. Here, we functionally characterized the role of SG6 in determining grain size through the regulation of spikelet hull cell division. SG6 encodes a previously uncharacterized plant AT‐rich sequence and zinc‐binding (PLATZ) protein that is ubiquitously localized throughout the cell and is preferentially expressed in the early developing panicles but not in the endosperm. The overexpression of SG6 resulted in significantly larger and heavier grains, as well as increased plant heights, which is consistent with its elevated spikelet hull cell division rate. Yeast two‐hybrid analyses revealed that SG6 interacts with the core cell cycle machinery DP protein and several other putative cell division regulators, consistent with our transcriptomic analysis, which showed that SG6 activates the expression of many DNA replication and cell‐cycle‐related genes. These results confirm the crucial role of SG6 in determining grain size by regulating spikelet hull cell division and provide clues for understanding the functions of PLATZ family proteins and the network regulating cereal grain size.

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    The Arabidopsis R‐SNARE protein YKT61 is essential for gametophyte development
    Ting Ma, En Li, Lu‐Shen Li, Sha Li and Yan Zhang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (4): 676-694.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13017
    Abstract (Browse 490)  |   Save
    Gametophyte development is a pre‐requisite for plant reproduction and seed yield; therefore, studies of gametophyte development help us understand fundamental biological questions and have potential applications in agriculture. The biogenesis and dynamics of endomembrane compartments are critical for cell survival, and their regulatory mechanisms are just beginning to be revealed. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana SNARE (soluble N‐ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein YKT61 is essential for both male and female gametogenesis. By using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR‐associated protein 9 (Cas9)‐based genome editing, we demonstrated that male and female gametophytes carrying YKT61 loss‐of‐function alleles do not survive. Specifically, loss of YKT61 function resulted in the arrest of male gametophytic development at pollen mitosis I and the degeneration of female gametophytes. A three‐base‐pair deletion in YKT61 in the ykt61‐3 mutant resulted in a single‐amino acid deletion in the longin domain of YKT61; the resulting mutant protein does not interact with multiple SNAREs and showed substantially reduced membrane association, suggesting that the N‐terminal longin domain of YKT61 plays multiple roles in its function. This study demonstrates that Arabidopsis YKT61 is essential for male and female gametogenesis and sets an example for functional characterization of essential genes with the combination of Cas9‐mediated editing and expression from a Cas9‐resistant transgene.
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    The plant cell wall: Biosynthesis, construction, and functions
    Baocai Zhang, Yihong Gao, Lanjun Zhang and Yihua Zhou
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (1): 251-272.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13055
    Abstract (Browse 490)  |   Save
    The plant cell wall is composed of multiple biopolymers, representing one of the most complex structural networks in nature. Hundreds of genes are involved in building such a natural masterpiece. However, the plant cell wall is the least understood cellular structure in plants. Due to great progress in plant functional genomics, many achievements have been made in uncovering cell wall biosynthesis, assembly, and architecture, as well as cell wall regulation and signaling. Such information has significantly advanced our understanding of the roles of the cell wall in many biological and physiological processes and has enhanced our utilization of cell wall materials. The use of cutting‐edge technologies such as single‐molecule imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy has provided much insight into the plant cell wall as an intricate nanoscale network, opening up unprecedented possibilities for cell wall research. In this review, we summarize the major advances made in understanding the cell wall in this era of functional genomics, including the latest findings on the biosynthesis, construction, and functions of the cell wall.
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    The nodulation and nyctinastic leaf movement is orchestrated by clock gene LHY in Medicago truncatula
    Yiming Kong, Lu Han, Xiu Liu, Hongfeng Wang, Lizhu Wen, Xiaolin Yu, Xiaodong Xu, Fanjiang Kong, Chunxiang Fu, Kirankumar S. Mysore, Jiangqi Wen and Chuanen Zhou
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (12): 1880-1895.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12999
    Abstract (Browse 472)  |   Save

    As sessile organisms, plants perceive, respond, and adapt to the environmental changes for optimal growth and survival. The plant growth and fitness are enhanced by circadian clocks through coordination of numerous biological events. In legume species, nitrogen‐fixing root nodules were developed as the plant organs specialized for symbiotic transfer of nitrogen between microsymbiont and host. Here, we report that the endogenous circadian rhythm in nodules is regulated by MtLHY in legume species Medicago truncatula. Loss of function of MtLHY leads to a reduction in the number of nodules formed, resulting in a diminished ability to assimilate nitrogen. The operation of the 24‐h rhythm in shoot is further influenced by the availability of nitrogen produced by the nodules, leading to the irregulated nyctinastic leaf movement and reduced biomass in mtlhy mutants. These data shed new light on the roles of MtLHY in the orchestration of circadian oscillator in nodules and shoots, which provides a mechanistic link between nodulation, nitrogen assimilation, and clock function.

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    Lectin receptor kinase OsLecRK-S.7 is required for pollen development and male fertility
    Xiaoqun Peng, Menglong Wang, Yiqi Li, Wei Yan, Zhenyi Chang, Zhufeng Chen, Chunjue Xu, Chengwei Yang, Xing Wang Deng, Jianxin Wu, and Xiaoyan Tang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (8): 1227-1245.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12897
    Abstract (Browse 470)  |   Save

    Pollen grains are covered by exine that protects the pollen from stress and facilitates pollination. Here we isolated a male sterile mutant s13283 in rice exhibiting aborted pollen with abnormal exine and defective aperture. The mutant gene encodes a novel plasma membrane‐localized legume‐lectin receptor kinase that we named OsLecRK‐S.7. OsLecRK‐S.7 was expressed at different levels in all tested tissues and throughout anther development. In vitro kinase assay showed OsLecRK‐S.7 capable of autophosporylation. Mutation in s13283 (E560K) and mutation of the conserved ATP binding site (K418E) both knocked out the kinase activity. Mass spectrometry showed Thr376, Ser378, Thr386, Thr403, and Thr657 to be the autophosphorylation sites. Mutation of individual autophosphorylation site affected the in vitro kinase activity to different degrees, but did not abolish the gene function in fertility complementation. oslecrk‐s.7 mutant plant overexpressing OsLecRK‐S.7 recovered male fertility but showed severe growth retardation with reduced number of tillers, and these phenotypes were abolished by E560K or K418E mutation. The results indicated that OsLecRK‐S.7 was a key regulator of pollen development.

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    Maize WI5 encodes an endo‐1,4‐β‐xylanase required for secondary cell wall synthesis and water transport in xylem
    Xiaojiao Hu, Yang Cui, Xiaomin Lu, Weibin Song, Lei Lei, Jinjie Zhu, Jinsheng Lai, Lizhu E and Haiming Zhao
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (10): 1607-1624.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12923
    Abstract (Browse 467)  |   Save

    Water transport from roots to leaves through xylem is important for plant growth and development. Defects in water transport can cause drought stress, even when there is adequate water in the soil. Here, we identified the maize (Zea mays) wilty5 (wi5) mutant, which exhibits marked dwarfing and leaf wilting throughout most of its life cycle under normal growth conditions. wilty5 seedlings exhibited lower xylem conductivity and wilted more rapidly under drought, NaCl, and high temperature treatments than wild‐type plants. Map‐based cloning revealed that WI5 encodes an active endo‐1,4‐β‐xylanase from glycosyl dehydration family 10, which mainly functions in degrading and reorganizing cell wall xylan. Reverse‐transcription polymerase chain reaction and β‐glucuronidase assays revealed that WI5 is highly expressed in stems, especially in internodes undergoing secondary wall assembly. RNA sequencing suggested that WI5 plays a unique role in internode growth. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy confirmed that wi5 is defective in xylan deposition and secondary cell wall thickening. Lignin deposition and xylan content were markedly reduced in wi5 compared to the wild‐type plants. Our results suggest that WI5 functions in xylem cell wall thickening through its xylanase activity and thereby regulates xylem water transport, the drought stress response, and plant growth in maize.

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    Ethylene and salicylic acid synergistically accelerate leaf senescence in Arabidopsis
    Chaoqi Wang, Shouyi Dai, Zhong‐Lin Zhang, Wenqing Lao, Ruiying Wang, Xianqing Meng and Xin Zhou
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (5): 828-833.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13075
    Abstract (Browse 465)  |   Save
    The phytohormones ethylene and salicylic acid (SA) have long been known to promote senescence, but their interplay during this process remains elusive. Here we report the synergistic effects of ethylene and SA on promoting leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. EIN3, a key transcription factor of ethylene signaling, physically interacted with the core SA signaling regulator NPR1 in senescing leaves. EIN3 and NPR1 synergistically promoted the expression of the senescence‐associated genes ORE1 and SAG29. The senescence phenotype was more delayed for the ein3eil1npr1 triple mutant than ein3eil1 or npr1 with ethylene or/and SA treatment. NPR1‐promoted leaf senescence may depend on functional EIN3/EIL1.
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    Ethylene signaling in rice and Arabidopsis: New regulators and mechanisms
    He Zhao, Cui-Cui Yin, Biao Ma, Shou-Yi Chen and Jin-Song Zhang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (1): 102-125.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13028
    Abstract (Browse 464)  |   Save
    Ethylene is a gaseous hormone which plays important roles in both plant growth and development and stress responses. Based on studies in the dicot model plant species Arabidopsis, a linear ethylene signaling pathway has been established, according to which ethylene is perceived by ethylene receptors and transduced through CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE 1 (CTR1) and ETHYLENE‐INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2) to activate transcriptional reprogramming. In addition to this canonical signaling pathway, an alternative ethylene receptor‐mediated phosphor‐relay pathway has also been proposed to participate in ethylene signaling. In contrast to Arabidopsis, rice, a monocot, grows in semiaquatic environments and has a distinct plant structure. Several novel regulators and/or mechanisms of the rice ethylene signaling pathway have recently been identified, indicating that the ethylene signaling pathway in rice has its own unique features. In this review, we summarize the latest progress and compare the conserved and divergent aspects of the ethylene signaling pathway between Arabidopsis and rice. The crosstalk between ethylene and other plant hormones is also reviewed. Finally, we discuss how ethylene regulates plant growth, stress responses and agronomic traits. These analyses should help expand our knowledge of the ethylene signaling mechanism and could further be applied for agricultural purposes.
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    The NPR1‐WRKY46‐WRKY6 signaling cascade mediates probenazole/salicylic acid‐elicited leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Dingyu Zhang, Zheng Zhu, Jiong Gao, Xin Zhou, Shuai Zhu, Xiaoyan Wang, Xiaolei Wang, Guodong Ren and Benke Kuai
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (5): 924-936.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13044
    Abstract (Browse 462)  |   Save
    Endogenous salicylic acid (SA) regulates leaf senescence, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unexplored. The exogenous application of SA to living plants is not efficient for inducing leaf senescence. By taking advantage of probenazole (PBZ)‐induced biosynthesis of endogenous SA, we previously established a chemical inducible leaf senescence system that depends on SA biosynthesis and its core signaling receptor NPR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, using this system, we identified WRKY46 and WRKY6 as key components of the transcriptional machinery downstream of NPR1 signaling. Upon PBZ treatment, the wrky46 mutant exhibited significantly delayed leaf senescence. We demonstrate that NPR1 is essential for PBZ/SA‐induced WRKY46 activation, whereas WRKY46 in turn enhances NPR1 expression. WRKY46 interacts with NPR1 in the nucleus, binding to the W‐box of the WRKY6 promoter to induce its expression in response to SA signaling. Dysfunction of WRKY6 abolished PBZ‐induced leaf senescence, while overexpression of WRKY6 was sufficient to accelerate leaf senescence even under normal growth conditions, suggesting that WRKY6 may serve as an integration node of multiple leaf senescence signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings reveal that the NPR1‐WRKY46‐WRKY6 signaling cascade plays a critical role in PBZ/SA‐mediated leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.
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    Rice FLOURY ENDOSPERM 18 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for 5′ processing of mitochondrial nad5 messenger RNA and endosperm development
    Mingzhou Yu, Mingming Wu, Yulong Ren, Yihua Wang, Jingfang Li, Cailin Lei, Yinglun Sun, Xiuhao Bao, Hongming Wu, Hang Yang, Tian Pan, Yongfei Wang, Ruonan Jing, Mengyuan Yan, Houda Zhang, Lei Zhao, Zhichao Zhao, Xin Zhang, Xiuping Guo, Zhijun Cheng, Bing Yang, Ling Jiang and Jianmin Wan
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (5): 834-847.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13049
    Abstract (Browse 460)  |   Save
    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, composing one of the largest protein families in plants, are involved in RNA binding and regulation of organelle RNA metabolism at the post‐transcriptional level. Although several PPR proteins have been implicated in endosperm development in rice (Oryza sativa), the molecular functions of many PPRs remain obscure. Here, we identified a rice endosperm mutant named floury endosperm 18 (flo18) with pleiotropic defects in both reproductive and vegetative development. Map‐based cloning and complementation tests showed that FLO18 encodes a mitochondrion‐targeted P‐type PPR protein with 15 PPR motifs. Mitochondrial function was disrupted in the flo18 mutant, as evidenced by decreased assembly of Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and altered mitochondrial morphology. Loss of FLO18 function resulted in defective 5′‐end processing of mitochondrial nad5 transcripts encoding subunit 5 of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogenase. These results suggested that FLO18 is involved in 5′‐end processing of nad5 messenger RNA and plays an important role in mitochondrial function and endosperm development.
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    Functional assembly of root-associated microbial consortia improves nutrient efficiency and yield in soybean
    Cunhu Wang, Yanjun Li, Mingjia Li, Kefei Zhang, Wenjing Ma, Lei Zheng, Hanyu Xu, Baofeng Cui, Ran Liu, Yongqing Yang, Yongjia Zhong and Hong Liao
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (6): 1021-1035.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13073
    Abstract (Browse 459)  |   Save
    Root-associated microbes are critical for plant growth and nutrient acquisition. However, scant information exists on optimizing communities of beneficial root-associated microbes or the mechanisms underlying their interactions with host plants. In this report, we demonstrate that root-associated microbes are critical influencers of host plant growth and nutrient acquisition. Three synthetic communities (SynComs) were constructed based on functional screening of 1,893 microbial strains isolated from root-associated compartments of soybean plants. Functional assemblage of SynComs promoted significant plant growth and nutrient acquisition under both N/P nutrient deficiency and sufficiency conditions. Field trials further revealed that application of SynComs stably and significantly promoted plant growth, facilitated N and P acquisition, and subsequently increased soybean yield. Among the tested communities, SynCom1 exhibited the greatest promotion effect, with yield increases of up to 36.1% observed in two field sites. Further RNA-seq implied that SynCom application systemically regulates N and P signaling networks at the transcriptional level, which leads to increased representation of important growth pathways, especially those related to auxin responses. Overall, this study details a promising strategy for constructing SynComs based on functional screening, which are capable of enhancing nutrient acquisition and crop yield through the activities of beneficial root-associated microbes.
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    Salicylic acid and ethylene coordinately promote leaf senescence
    Xiaodong Yu, Yiren Xu and Shunping Yan
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (5): 823-827.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13074
    Abstract (Browse 454)  |   Save
    Leaf senescence is an intrinsic biological process of plants. The phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) are known to promote senescence. However, their relationship in this process is still unclear. We found that EIN3 and EIL1, two key transcription factors in ET signaling, are required for SA‐induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, ET enhances the effect of SA in promoting senescence. Biochemical studies revealed that NPR1, the master regulator of SA signaling, interacts with EIN3 to promote its transcriptional activity. Our study suggests that SA and ET function coordinately in senescence, which is in contrast to their antagonistic crosstalk in other biological processes.
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    Salicylic acid promotes quiescent center cell division through ROS accumulation and down‐regulation of PLT1, PLT2, and WOX5
    Zhuqing Wang, Duoyan Rong, Dixing Chen, Yang Xiao, Renyi Liu, Shuang Wu and Chizuko Yamamuro
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (3): 583-596.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13020
    Abstract (Browse 446)  |   Save
    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in plant immunity. However, its function in plant development is poorly understood. The quiescent center (QC), which maintains columella stem cells (CSCs) in the root apical meristem and typically exhibits low levels of cell division, is critical for root growth and development. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana SA overaccumulation mutant constitutively activated cell death 1 (cad1), which exhibits increased cell division in the QC, is rescued by additional mutations in genes encoding the SA biosynthetic enzyme SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFFICIENT2 (SID2) or the SA receptor NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1), indicating that QC cell division in the cad1 mutant is promoted by the NPR1‐dependent SA signaling pathway. The application of exogenous SA also promoted QC cell division in wild‐type plants in a dose‐dependent manner and largely suppressed the expression of genes involved in QC maintenance, including those encoding the APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, as well as the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL‐RELATED HOMEOBOX5 (WOX5). Moreover, we showed that SA promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which is necessary for the QC cell division phenotype in the cad1 mutant. These results provide insight into the function of SA in QC maintenance.
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    Maize endosperm development
    Dawei Dai, Zeyang Ma and Rentao Song
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (4): 613-627.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13069
    Abstract (Browse 436)  |   Save
    Recent breakthroughs in transcriptome analysis and gene characterization have provided valuable resources and information about the maize endosperm developmental program. The high temporal‐resolution transcriptome analysis has yielded unprecedented access to information about the genetic control of seed development. Detailed spatial transcriptome analysis using laser‐capture microdissection has revealed the expression patterns of specific populations of genes in the four major endosperm compartments: the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL), aleurone layer (AL), starchy endosperm (SE), and embryo‐surrounding region (ESR). Although the overall picture of the transcriptional regulatory network of endosperm development remains fragmentary, there have been some exciting advances, such as the identification of OPAQUE11 (O11) as a central hub of the maize endosperm regulatory network connecting endosperm development, nutrient metabolism, and stress responses, and the discovery that the endosperm adjacent to scutellum (EAS) serves as a dynamic interface for endosperm‐embryo crosstalk. In addition, several genes that function in BETL development, AL differentiation, and the endosperm cell cycle have been identified, such as ZmSWEET4c, Thk1, and Dek15, respectively. Here, we focus on current advances in understanding the molecular factors involved in BETL, AL, SE, ESR, and EAS development, including the specific transcriptional regulatory networks that function in each compartment during endosperm development.
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    ABNORMAL SHOOT 6 interacts with KATANIN 1 and SHADE AVOIDANCE 4 to promote cortical microtubule severing and ordering in Arabidopsis
    Yuanfeng Li, Meng Deng, Haofeng Liu, Yan Li, Yu Chen, Min Jia, Hui Xue, Jingxia Shao, Jun Zhao, Yafei Qi, Lijun An, Fei Yu and Xiayan Liu
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (4): 646-661.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13003
    Abstract (Browse 435)  |   Save
    Plant interphase cortical microtubules (cMTs) mediate anisotropic cell expansion in response to environmental and developmental cues. In Arabidopsis thaliana, KATANIN 1 (KTN1), the p60 catalytic subunit of the conserved MT‐severing enzyme katanin, is essential for cMT ordering and anisotropic cell expansion. However, the regulation of KTN1‐mediated cMT severing and ordering remains unclear. In this work, we report that the Arabidopsis IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) family gene ABNORMAL SHOOT 6 (ABS6) encodes a MT‐associated protein. Overexpression of ABS6 leads to elongated cotyledons, directional pavement cell expansion, and highly ordered transverse cMT arrays. Genetic suppressor analysis revealed that ABS6‐mediated cMT ordering is dependent on KTN1 and SHADE AVOIDANCE 4 (SAV4). Live imaging of cMT dynamics showed that both ABS6 and SAV4 function as positive regulators of cMT severing. Furthermore, ABS6 directly interacts with KTN1 and SAV4 and promotes their recruitment to the cMTs. Finally, analysis of loss‐of‐function mutant combinations showed that ABS6, SAV4, and KTN1 work together to ensure the robust ethylene response in the apical hook of dark‐grown seedlings. Together, our findings establish ABS6 and SAV4 as positive regulators of cMT severing and ordering, and highlight the role of cMT dynamics in fine‐tuning differential growth in plants.
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    Identification of late-stage pollen-specific promoters for construction of pollen-inactivation system in rice
    Menglong Wang, Wei Yan, Xiaoqun Peng, Zhufeng Chen, Chunjue Xu, Jianxin Wu, Xing Wang Deng and Xiaoyan Tang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (8): 1246-1263.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12912
    Abstract (Browse 429)  |   Save

    Large‐scale production of male sterile seeds can be achieved by introducing a fertility‐restoration gene linked with a pollen‐killer gene into a recessive male sterile mutant. We attempted to construct this system in rice by using a late‐stage pollen‐specific (LSP ) promoter driving the expression of maize α‐amylase gene ZM‐AA1 . To obtain such promoters in rice, we conducted comparative RNA‐seq analysis of mature pollen with meiosis anther, and compared this with the transcriptomic data of various tissues in the Rice Expression Database, resulting in 269 candidate LSP genes. Initial test of nine LSP genes showed that only the most active OsLSP3 promoter could drive ZM‐AA1 to disrupt pollen. We then analyzed an additional 22 LSP genes and found 12 genes stronger than OsLSP3 in late‐stage anthers. The promoters of OsLSP5 and OsLSP6 showing higher expression than OsLSP3 at stages 11 and 12 could drive ZM‐AA1 to inactivate pollen, while the promoter of OsLSP4 showing higher expression at stage 12 only could not drive ZM‐AA1 to disrupt pollen, suggesting that strong promoter activity at stage 11 was critical for pollen inactivation. The strong pollen‐specific promoters identified in this study provided valuable tools for genetic engineering of rice male sterile system for hybrid rice production.

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    UPA2 and ZmRAVL1: Promising targets of genetic improvement of maize plant architecture
    Dexin Kong, Baobao Wang and Haiyang Wang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (4): 394-397.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12873
    Abstract (Browse 423)  |   Save

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) is a major staple crop, with the highest tonnage among cereal crops worldwide (FAO 2014). Over the past century, maize yields have increased over eight folds in the US central Corn Belt (from 1287 kg ha-1 in the 1930s to 11,084 kg ha-1 in 2017,, Duvick 2005b) due to a combination of genetic gain resulting from breeding efforts and improved management practices (such as application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, weed and pest control, increased efficiency of harvest equipment, etc.). A major management practice that contributed to the continuous yield increase is continual increases in planting density (from 30,000 plant ha-1 or less in the 1930s to 80,000 plants ha-1 or higher in the 1980s, Duvick 2005a, 2005b).

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    Exploring the diversity of plant proteome
    Yanmei Chen, Yi Wang, Jun Yang, Wenbin Zhou and Shaojun Dai
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (7): 1197-1210.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13087
    Abstract (Browse 423)  |   Save
    The tremendous functional, spatial, and temporal diversity of the plant proteome is regulated by multiple factors that continuously modify protein abundance, modifications, interactions, localization, and activity to meet the dynamic needs of plants. Dissecting the proteome complexity and its underlying genetic variation is attracting increasing research attention. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful approach in the global study of protein functions and their relationships on a systems level. Here, we review recent breakthroughs and strategies adopted to unravel the diversity of the proteome, with a specific focus on the methods used to analyze posttranslational modifications (PTMs), protein localization, and the organization of proteins into functional modules. We also consider PTM crosstalk and multiple PTMs temporally regulating the life cycle of proteins. Finally, we discuss recent quantitative studies using MS to measure protein turnover rates and examine future directions in the study of the plant proteome.
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    Developmental pathways for shaping spike inflorescence architecture in barley and wheat
    Ravi Koppolu and Thorsten Schnurbusch
    J Integr Plant Biol 2019, 61 (3): 278-295.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12771
    Abstract (Browse 397)  |   Save
    Grass species display a wide array of inflorescences ranging from highly branched compound/panicle inflorescences to unbranched spike inflorescences. The unbranched spike is a characteristic feature of the species of tribe Triticeae, including economically important crops, such as wheat and barley. In this review, we describe two important developmental genetic mechanisms regulating spike inflorescence architecture in barley and wheat. These include genetic regulation of (i) row-type pathway specific to Hordeum species and (ii) unbranched spike development in barley and wheat. For a comparative understanding, we describe the branched inflorescence phenotypes of rice and maize along with unbranched Triticeae inflorescences. In the end, we propose a simplified model describing a probable mechanism leading to unbranched spike formation in Triticeae species.
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    Rice SPL10 positively regulates trichome development through expression of HL6 and auxin-related genes
    Jinjie Li, Bo Tang, Yingxiu Li, Chenguang Li, Minjie Guo, Haiyang Chen, Shichen Han, Jin Li, Qijin Lou, Wenqiang Sun, Peng Wang, Haifeng Guo, Wei Ye, Zhanying Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, Sibin Yu, Long Zhang and Zichao Li
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (8): 1521-1537.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13140
    Abstract (Browse 394)  |   Save
    Trichomes function in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses; examination of glabrous lines, which lack trichomes, has revealed key aspects of trichome development and function. Tests of allelism in 51 glabrous rice (Oryza sativa) accessions collected worldwide identified OsSPL10 and OsWOX3B as regulators of trichome development in rice. Here, we report that OsSPL10 acts as a transcriptional regulator controlling trichome development. Haplotype and transient expression analyses revealed that variation in the approximately 700-bp OsSPL10 promoter region is the primary cause of the glabrous phenotype in the indica cultivar WD-17993. Disruption of OsSPL10 by genome editing decreased leaf trichome density and length in the NIL-HL6 background. Plants with genotype OsSPL10WD-17993/HL6 generated by crossing WD-17993 with NIL-HL6 also had fewer trichomes in the glumes. HAIRY LEAF6 (HL6) encodes another transcription factor that regulates trichome initiation and elongation, and OsSPL10 directly binds to the HL6 promoter to regulate its expression. Moreover, the transcript levels of auxin-related genes, such as OsYUCCA5 and OsPIN-FORMED1b, were altered in OsSPL10 overexpression and RNAi transgenic lines. Feeding tests using locusts (Locusta migratoria) demonstrated that non-glandular trichomes affect feeding by this herbivore. Our findings provide a molecular framework for trichome development and an ecological perspective on trichome functions.
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    Abscisic acid receptors maintain abscisic acid homeostasis by modulating UGT71C5 glycosylation activity
    Yanlin Ma, Jing Cao, Qiaoqiao Chen, Jiahan He, Zhibin Liu, Jianmei Wang, Xufeng Li and Yi Yang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (3): 543-552.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13030
    Abstract (Browse 391)  |   Save
    Uridine diphosphate‐glucosyltransferases (UGTs) maintain abscisic acid (ABA) homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana by converting ABA to abscisic acid‐glucose ester (ABA‐GE). UGT71C5 plays an important role in the generation of ABA‐GE. Abscisic acid receptors are crucial upstream components of the ABA signaling pathway, but how UGTs and ABA receptors function together to modulate ABA levels is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the ABA receptors RCAR12/13 and UGT71C5 maintain ABA homeostasis in Arabidopsis following rehydration under drought stress. Biochemical analyses show that UGT71C5 directly interacted with RCAR8/12/13 in yeast cells, and the interactions between UGT71C5 and RCAR12/13 were enhanced by ABA treatment. Enzyme activity analysis showed that ABA‐GE contents were significantly elevated in the presence of RCAR12 or RCAR13, suggesting that these ABA receptors enhance the activity of UGT71C5. Determination of the content of ABA and ABA‐GE in Arabidopsis following rehydration under drought stress revealed that ABA‐GE contents were significantly higher in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing RCAR12 and RCAR13 than in non‐transformed plants and plants overexpressing RCAR11 following rehydration under drought stress. These observations suggest that RCAR12 and RCAR13 enhance the activity of UGT71C5 to glycosylate excess ABA into ABA‐GE following rehydration under drought stress, representing a rapid mechanism for regulating plant growth and development.
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    Root developmental responses to phosphorus nutrition
    Dong Liu
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (6): 1065-1090.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13090
    Abstract (Browse 389)  |   Save
    Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Root system architecture (RSA) affects a plant's ability to obtain phosphate, the major form of phosphorus that plants uptake. In this review, I first consider the relationship between RSA and plant phosphorus-acquisition efficiency, describe how external phosphorus conditions both induce and impose changes in the RSA of major crops and of the model plant Arabidopsis, and discuss whether shoot phosphorus status affects RSA and whether there is a universal root developmental response across all plant species. I then summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing root developmental responses to phosphorus deficiency. I also explore the possible reasons for the inconsistent results reported by different research groups and comment on the relevance of some studies performed under laboratory conditions to what occurs in natural environments.
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    MiR319-targeted OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb regulate tillering and grain yield in rice
    Rongna Wang, Xiuyan Yang, Shuang Guo, Zhaohui Wang, Zhanhui Zhang and Zhongming Fang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (7): 1260-1272.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13097
    Abstract (Browse 389)  |   Save
    Multiple genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) improve grain yield by promoting tillering. MiR319s are known to regulate several aspects of plant development; however, whether miR319s are essential for tillering regulation remains unclear. Here, we report that miR319 is highly expressed in the basal part of rice plant at different development stages. The miR319 knockdown line Short Tandem Target Mimic 319 (STTM319) showed higher tiller bud length in seedlings under low nitrogen (N) condition and higher tiller bud number under high N condition compared with the miR319a-overexpression line. Through targets prediction, we identified OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb as downstream targets of miR319. Moreover, OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb overexpression lines and STTM319 had increased tiller bud length and biomass, whereas both were decreased in OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb knockout lines and OE319a. These data suggest that miR319 regulates rice tiller bud development and tillering through targeting OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb. Notably, the tiller number and grain yield increased in STTM319 and overexpression lines of OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb but decreased in OE319a and knockout lines of OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb. Taken together, our findings indicate that miR319s negatively affect tiller number and grain yield by targeting OsTCP21 and OsGAmyb, revealing a novel function for miR319 in rice.
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    Plasma membrane H+‐ATPases‐mediated cytosolic proton gradient regulates pollen tube growth
    Wei Chen, Peng‐Fei Jia, Wei‐Cai Yang and Hong‐Ju Li
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (12): 1817-1822.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12981
    Abstract (Browse 387)  |   Save

    The polar growth of pollen tubes is essential for the delivery of sperm cells during fertilization in angiosperms. How this polar growth is regulated has been a long‐standing question. An in vitro pharmacological assay previously implicated proton flux in pollen tube growth, although genetic and cellular supporting evidence was lacking. Here, we report that protons form a gradient from the pollen tube tip to the shank region and this gradient is generated by three members of Arabidopsis H+ATPases (AHAs). Genetic analysis suggested that these AHAs are essential for pollen tube growth, thus providing new insight into the regulation of polar growth.

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    Arabidopsis PEAPODs function with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 to regulate lateral organ growth
    Ying Zhu, Xiao Luo, Xuxin Liu, Wenjuan Wu, Xiaofeng Cui, Yuehui He and Jirong Huang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (6): 812-831.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12841
    Abstract (Browse 381)  |   Save

    In higher plants, lateral organs are usually of determinate growth. It remains largely elusive how the determinate growth is achieved and maintained. Previous reports have shown that Arabidopsis PEAPOD (PPD) proteins suppress proliferation of dispersed meristematic cells partly through a TOPLESS corepressor complex. Here, we identified a new PPD‐interacting partner, LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1), using the yeast two‐hybrid system, and their interaction is mediated by the chromo shadow domain and the Jas domain in LHP1 and PPD2, respectively. Our genetic data demonstrate that the phenotype of ppd2 lhp1 is more similar to lhp1 than to ppd2 , indicating epistasis of lhp1 to ppd2 . Microarray analysis reveals that PPD2 and LHP1 can regulate expression of a common set of genes directly or indirectly. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation results confirm that PPD2 and LHP1 are coenriched at the promoter region of their targets such as D3‐TYPE CYCLINS and HIGH MOBILITY GROUP A , which are upregulated in ppd2, lhp1 and ppd2 lhp1 mutants, and that PPD s mediate repressive histone 3 lysine‐27 trimethylation at these loci. Taken together, our data provide evidence that PPD and LHP1 form a corepressor complex that regulates lateral organ growth.

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    Plant cell totipotency: Insights into cellular reprogramming
    Ying Hua Su, Li Ping Tang, Xiang Yu Zhao and Xian Sheng Zhang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (1): 228-243.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12972
    Abstract (Browse 376)  |   Save
    Plant cells have a powerful capacity in their propagation to adapt to environmental change, given that a single plant cell can give rise to a whole plant via somatic embryogenesis without the need for fertilization. The reprogramming of somatic cells into totipotent cells is a critical step in somatic embryogenesis. This process can be induced by stimuli such as plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and stress. Here, we review current knowledge on how the identity of totipotent cells is determined and the stimuli required for reprogramming of somatic cells into totipotent cells. We highlight key molecular regulators and associated networks that control cell fate transition from somatic to totipotent cells. Finally, we pose several outstanding questions that should be addressed to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cell totipotency.
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    ANNEXIN 8 negatively regulates RPW8.1‐mediated cell death and disease resistance in Arabidopsis
    Zhi‐Xue Zhao, Yong‐Ju Xu, Yang Lei, Qin Li, Ji‐Qun Zhao, Yan Li, Jing Fan, Shunyuan Xiao and Wen‐Ming Wang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (2): 378-392.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13025
    Abstract (Browse 371)  |   Save
    Study on the regulation of broad‐spectrum resistance is an active area in plant biology. RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8.1 (RPW8.1) is one of a few broad‐spectrum resistance genes triggering the hypersensitive response (HR) to restrict multiple pathogenic infections. To address the question how RPW8.1 signaling is regulated, we performed a genetic screen and tried to identify mutations enhancing RPW8.1‐mediated HR. Here, we provided evidence to connect an annexin protein with RPW8.1‐mediated resistance in Arabidopsis against powdery mildew. We isolated and characterized Arabidopsis b7‐6 mutant. A point mutation in b7‐6 at the At5g12380 locus resulted in an amino acid substitution in ANNEXIN 8 (AtANN8). Loss‐of‐function or RNA‐silencing of AtANN8 led to enhanced expression of RPW8.1, RPW8.1‐dependent necrotic lesions in leaves, and defense against powdery mildew. Conversely, over‐expression of AtANN8 compromised RPW8.1‐mediated disease resistance and cell death. Interestingly, the mutation in AtANN8 enhanced RPW8.1‐triggered H2O2. In addition, mutation in AtANN8 led to hypersensitivity to salt stress. Together, our data indicate that AtANN8 is involved in multiple stress signaling pathways and negatively regulates RPW8.1‐mediated resistance against powdery mildew and cell death, thus linking ANNEXIN's function with plant immunity.
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    BRITTLE PLANT1 is required for normal cell wall composition and mechanical strength in rice
    Yuanyan Zhang, Yihua Wang, Chunming Wang, Carsten Rautengarten, Erchao Duan, Jianping Zhu, Xiaopin Zhu, Jie Lei, Chao Peng, Yunlong Wang, Xuan Teng, Yunlu Tian, Xi Liu, Joshua L. Heazlewood, Aimin Wu and Jianmin Wan
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (5): 865-877.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13050
    Abstract (Browse 371)  |   Save
    A series of nucleotide sugar interconversion enzymes (NSEs) generate the activated sugar donors required for biosynthesis of cell wall matrix polysaccharides and glycoproteins. UDP‐glucose 4‐epimerases (UGEs) are NSEs that function in the interconversion of UDP‐glucose (UDP‐Glc) and UDP‐galactose (UDP‐Gal). The roles of UDP‐glucose 4‐epimerases in monocots remain unclear due to redundancy in the pathways. Here, we report a brittle plant (bp1) rice mutant that exhibits brittle leaves and culms at all growth stages. The mutant culms had reduced levels of rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, and arabinogalactan proteins. Moreover, the mutant had altered contents of uronic acids, neutral noncellulosic monosaccharides, and cellulose. Map‐based cloning demonstrated that OsBP1 encodes a UDP‐glucose 4‐epimerase (OsUGE2), a cytosolic protein. We also show that BP1 can form homo‐ and hetero‐protein complexes with other UGE family members and with UDP‐galactose transporters 2 (OsUGT2) and 3 (OsUGT3), which may facilitate the channeling of Gal to polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Our results demonstrate that BP1 participates in regulating the sugar composition and structure of rice cell walls.
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    From genes to networks: The genetic control of leaf development
    Hongfeng Wang, Fanjiang Kong and Chuanen Zhou
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (7): 1181-1196.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13084
    Abstract (Browse 370)  |   Save
    Substantial diversity exists for both the size and shape of the leaf, the main photosynthetic organ of flowering plants. The two major forms of leaf are simple leaves, in which the leaf blade is undivided, and compound leaves, which comprise several leaflets. Leaves form at the shoot apical meristem from a group of undifferentiated cells, which first establish polarity, then grow and differentiate. Each of these processes is controlled by a combination of transcriptional regulators, microRNAs and phytohormones. The present review documents recent advances in our understanding of how these various factors modulate the development of both simple leaves (focusing mainly on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana) and compound leaves (focusing mainly on the model legume species Medicago truncatula).
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    The Brassica napus GATA transcription factor BnA5.ZML1 is a stigma compatibility factor
    Zhiqiang Duan, Yatao Zhang, Jinxing Tu, Jinxiong Shen, Bin Yi, Tingdong Fu, Cheng Dai and Chaozhi Ma
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (8): 1112-1131.  
    DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12916
    Abstract (Browse 363)  |   Save

    Self‐incompatibility (SI) is a genetic mechanism that rejects self‐pollen and thus prevents inbreeding in some hermaphroditic angiosperms. In the Brassicaceae, SI involves a pollen‐stigma recognition system controlled by a single locus known as the S locus, which consists of two highly polymorphic genes that encode S‐locus cysteine‐rich protein (SCR) and S‐receptor kinase (SRK). When self‐pollen lands on the stigma, the S‐haplotype‐specific interaction between SCR and SRK triggers SI. Here, we show that the GATA transcription factor BnA5.ZML1 suppresses SI responses in Brassica napus and is induced after compatible pollination. The loss‐of‐function mutant bna5.zml1 displays reduced self‐compatibility. In contrast, overexpression of BnA5.ZML1 in self‐incompatible stigmas leads to a partial breakdown of SI responses, suggesting that BnA5.ZML1 is a stigmatic compatibility factor. Furthermore, the expression levels of SRK and ARC1 are up‐regulated in bna5.zml1 mutants, and they are down‐regulated in BnA5.ZML1 overexpressing lines. SRK affects the cellular localization of BnA5.ZML1 through direct protein–protein interaction. Overall, our findings highlight the fundamental role of BnA5.ZML1 in SI responses in B. napus , establishing a direct interaction between BnA5.ZML1 and SRK in this process.

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    The transcription factor GATA10 regulates fertility conversion of a two-line hybrid tms5 mutant rice via the modulation of Ub L40 expression
    Jing Jin, Songtao Gui, Qian Li, Ying Wang, Hongyuan Zhang, Zhixuan Zhu, Hao Chen, Yueyang Sun, Yu Zou, Xingguo Huang and Yi Ding
    J Integr Plant Biol 2020, 62 (7): 1034-1056.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.12871
    Abstract (Browse 362)  |   Save

    The thermosensitive genic male sterile 5 (tms5 ) mutation causes thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa ) through loss of RNase ZS1 function, which influences ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein L40 (Ub L40 ) messenger RNA levels during male development. Here, we used ATAC‐seq, combined with analysis of H3K9ac and H3K4me2, to identify changes in accessible chromatin during fertility conversion of the two‐line hybrid rice Wuxiang S (WXS) derived from a mutant tms5 allele. Furthermore, RNA‐seq and bioinformatic analyses identified specific transcription factors (TFs) in differentially accessible chromatin regions. Among these TFs, only GATA10 targeted Ub L40 . Osgata10 knockout mutations, which resulted in low expression of Ub L40 and a tendency toward male fertility, confirmed that GATA10 regulated fertility conversion via the modulation of Ub L40 . Meanwhile, GATA10 acted as a mediator for interactions with ERF65, which revealed that transcriptional regulation is a complex process involving multiple complexes of TFs, namely TF modules. It appears that the ERF141/MADS7/MADS50/MYB modules affect metabolic processes that control anther and pollen development, especially cell wall formation. Our analysis revealed that these modules directly or indirectly affect metabolic pathway‐related genes to coordinate plant growth with proper anther development, and furthermore, that GATA10 regulates fertility conversion via the modulation of Ub L40 expression.

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    Phase separation in plants: New insights into cellular compartmentalization
    Xiumei Xu, Canhui Zheng, Dandan Lu, Chun‐Peng Song and Lixin Zhang
    J Integr Plant Biol 2021, 63 (11): 1835-1855.  
    doi: 10.1111/jipb.13152
    Abstract (Browse 360)  |   Save
    A fundamental challenge for cells is how to coordinate various biochemical reactions in space and time. To achieve spatiotemporal control, cells have developed organelles that are surrounded by lipid bilayer membranes. Further, membraneless compartmentalization, a process induced by dynamic physical association of biomolecules through phase transition offers another efficient mechanism for intracellular organization. While our understanding of phase separation was predominantly dependent on yeast and animal models, recent findings have provided compelling evidence for emerging roles of phase separation in plants. In this review, we first provide an overview of the current knowledge of phase separation, including its definition, biophysical principles, molecular features and regulatory mechanisms. Then we summarize plant-specific phase separation phenomena and describe their functions in plant biological processes in great detail. Moreover, we propose that phase separation is an evolutionarily conserved and efficient mechanism for cellular compartmentalization which allows for distinct metabolic processes and signaling pathways, and is especially beneficial for the sessile lifestyle of plants to quickly and efficiently respond to the changing environment.
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